The construct of Self-esteem has been explicated within the indigenous social context through development and validation of Self-esteem Scale. Firstly, the dimensionality of the Self-esteem construct and internal consistency/reliability of the self esteem scale were ascertained For that, an item pool was developed from qualitative data obtained from two pilot studies and the translations of four existing Self-esteem Scales. After an extensive scrutiny and evaluation of the items, 72 items, most relevant to the construct. and expressing evaluations of a global self and its various aspects, were phrased in self-reported statements with a five-point scale. This scale was given to a sample of 300 participants (150 boys and J 50 girls). The Principal Component Factor Analysis revealed that most of the items of Self-esteem Scale were positively loaded all first four factors that explained 22.5% of the total variance. The eigenvalues for these factors were 7.4, 4.0, 2.5 and 2.2, respectively. The factor solution was rotated to get clear and interpretable dimensions of the self-esteem. The contents of Ihe items with>. 30 factor loadings on the four factors in rotated solution were examined ill detail.
The rotated factor solution was found to be more meaningful in terms of the theoretical interpretation of its factors. Following the criteria of Kline (1986), only those items were selected for further examination which had >.30 factor loading. An examination of the contents of these items yielded four factors which were labeled as Self-Acceptance, Self Competence, Social, and Physical Self-Acceptance and, Academic Self-Competence. There were 11 items with >.30 factor loading on first factor, i.e., Self- Acceptance. On Second factor of Self-Competence 6 items were having â‰¥.30 factor loadings and on third factor, Social and Physical Self- Acceptance, 7 items were found to be having>. 30 factor loading, whereas on fourth factor of Academic Self-Competence, there were five items which were having â‰¥.30 factor loadings. The Self-Esteem Scale was reduced to only those 29 items which received high factor loadings on four dimensions of self-esteem.
These constituted the four subscales of the Self-Esteem Scale. These selected 29 items were positively correlated with the total score with an average correlation of .42. The Self-Esteem Scale (29 items) was found to be internally consistent and reliable as indicated by the alpha coefficient value .83 (p<.00). The sp/it-half reliability was found to he .72 (p<.OO) with Spearman Brown correction. Boys scored higher on the Self Esteem Scale as compared to girls supporting the hypotheses formulated in this regard.
The difference of scores between boys and girls was found to be nonsignificant on the dimension of Academic Self-Competence.
In the second phase of the research, five validation studies were carried out to test the validity of Self-Esteem Scale. Study I conducted on a sample of 60 participants tested the concurrent/convergent validity of Self-Esteem Scale by finding its correlation with Rosenberg (J 965) Self-Esteem Scale (r=.62 p<. 00). The scores of the four subscales were also positively related with scores of Rosenberg Scale. Study II was conducted on sample of 60 participants to test the convergent validity of the subscale of Academic Self Competence by finding its correlation with scores obtained through Academic Self-Concept Scale developed by Ahmed (1986) and achievement scores obtained in school examination. The results showed that the scores on the Academic Self-Concept Scale were positively related with scores of the subscale Academic Self-Competence (r=.46, p<.OO), whereas the positive correlations with the other three subscales were less in magnitude and non-significant. The highly positive correlation coefficient provided the evidence of convergent validity of Academic Self-Competence scale and, non-significant and less positive correlation of Academic Self-Concept Scale with other subscales indicated the discriminant validity of these subscales. The correlation between the Academic Self-Competence and achievement scores indicated the concurrent validity of this subscale (r = .29, p<.05).
The other three studies were carried out for construct validation of Self-esteem by examining its relationship with Anxiety, Delinquency and Depressio11. Study III was conducted on a sample of 150 participants to explore the relationship between self esteem and anxiety. High self-esteem and anxiety were found to he negatively related to each other (r=-.48, p<.00) and the hypotheses that low self-esteem individuals score high on Anxiety scale (t-value =4.55, df90, p<.OO) was supported Study IV was conducted on a sample of 100 participants to explore the relationship between self-esteem and self reported delinquency. The results showed that there was significant negative correlation between high self-esteem and delinquency (r =-.23,p<.0I) and the participants with high self-esteem scored low on delinquency scale (t-value=2.53 p<.OJ), thus indicating that the self-esteem and delinquency are negatively related to each other. The relationship of delinquency with subscales of Self-Competence and Academic Self-Competence was found to be negligible and non-significant. Study V, conducted on a sample of 145 participants, examined the relationship between depression and self-esteem. The analysis of data revealed the negative relationship between high self-esteem and depression (r=.53, p<.OO). The low self-esteem individuals scored high Oil SSDS and significantly differed from individuals scoring high on Self-esteem Scale (t-value= 7.50, df=86,p<.00).
The .findings of the present research have revealed a theoretically interpretable multidimensional structure of self-esteem within an indigenous context. The Self-Esteem Scale, was found to be a valid and reliable measure. The implications for future research have been discussed with reference to further validation and improvement in methodology.