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Title of Thesis

Institute/University/Department Details
National Centre of Excellence in Geology/ University of Peshawar
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
marwat-khisor ranges, startigraphic framework, stratigraphy, structural architecture, khisor thrust fault, paleozoic rocks, mesozoic rocks

The Marwat-Khisor ranges define an east to northeast-trending fold-thrust belt flanking the mobile perimeter of the Bannu Basin in the south. Detailed mapping in this belt has led to well understanding of its stratigraphy and structural architecture. The stratigraphy of the Khisor Range consists of Paleozoic to Mesozoic platform sedimentary rocks unconformably overlain by Plio-Pleistocene sediments of Siwalik Group rocks whereas the Marwat Range is entirely composed of Siwalik Group rocks of Plio-Pleistocene age. Structures produced by ongoing Himalayan tectonics are well recorded in these ranges and are represented by regional to local scale, parallel to en cehelon folds and thrust faults. Key structural elements of the Khisor Range are the Paniala, Saiyiduwali, Mir AIi, and Khisor anticlines along with a frontal thrust named the Khisor Thrust. The Marwat Anticline constitutes the main structure of the Marwat Range. At the surface, most of these folds have southward-facing asymmetry except the Paniala Anticline, which is north facing. The Khisor Thrust fault is partially exposed along the southern slopes of the Khisor Range where it places Permian strata in its hanging wall over the Siwalik Group rocks in the footwall. Several interpretive structural transects are constructed across the Marwat-Khisor ranges in order to analyze its subsurface style. Projecting surface structures to depth using kink plane bisecting angle techniques, it is found that in Marwat-Khisor ranges basement is not involved in deformation and there is a through-going sole fault at the base of Jhelum Group rocks which separates basement from the overlying sedimentary sequence. Shortening above this basal decollement is the consequence of sequential up-section ramping. The Marwat Anticline is the earliest response to shortening related to a simple structural process-fault bend folding and its evolution is concurrent with the underlying ramp. It was subsequently followed by gradual southward migration of deformation till enough critical taper was achieved to initiate the next frontal ramp from the basal decollement that emerged at surface as Khisor Thrust that accomplish most of the shortening in the frontal boundary of the Khisor Range. Major folds in the Khisor Thrust sheet such as the Paniala, Saiyiduwali, Khisor, and Mir Ali anticlines accommodate bending in the underlying thrust ramp. Orientation of both large and small-scale structures indicate that the Marwat-Khisor structural province is characterized by thin skinned deformed fold-thrust assemblages that define a south-southeast vergent structural system impinging upon the Punjab Foreland. Attitude data on the fold limbs suggest that the prominent fold structures have been evolved as fault-bend folds, being the consequence of contractile deformation related to southward progression of Himalayan deformation. Deformation in the region post-dates the deposition of Plio-Pleistocene Siwaliks indicating that the age of compressional deformation is post Pleistocene. Prerequisites for hydrocarbon generation, accumulation and entrapment such as source, reservoir , seal, and fault related anticlinal culminations are present throughout the study area that proves the hydrocarbon potential of the surrounding region.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
144.62 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
646.64 KB
  1.1 General Statements 4
  1.2 Location 4
  1.3 Scope Of Study 6
  1.4 Historical Review 6
  1.5 Methodolgy 8
  1.6 Geological Setting Of Pakistan 10
  1.7 Geotectonic Setting Of Pakistan 11
  1.8 Geodynamic Setting Of Pakistan 14
  1.9 Structural Setting Of Pakistan 15
  1.10 Stratigraphic Overview 23
3 2 Paleozoic And Mesozoic Stratigraphy Of The Khisor Range
1482.03 KB
  2.1 Introduction 25
  2.2 Paleozoic Rocks 29
  2.3 Mesozoic Rocks 52
4 3 Cenozoic Stratigraphy Of The Marwat Range
319.77 KB
  3.1 General Description 63
  3.2 Siwalik Group 63
  3.3 Well Data And Stratigraphic Correlation 71
5 4 Structural Geology Of The Western Marwat-Khisor Ranges 73
460.3 KB
  4.1 Overview 73
  4.2 Map Pattern 74
  4.3 Faults 83
  4.4 Subsurface Structural Style 85
  4.5 Location Of Major Detachment 85
  4.6 Structural Cross Sections 86
6 5 Structural Geology Of The Eastern Marwat-Khisor Ranges 88
288.19 KB
  5.1 Overview 91
  5.2 Map Pattern 91
  5.3 Subsurface Structural Style 97
7 6 Structural Analysis 103
392.73 KB
  6.1 Regional Pattern 103
  6.2 Thin-Skinned Deformation And Decollement 103
  6.3 Relationship Of Structure And Stratigraphy 106
  6.4 Displacement And Shortening Along Khisor Thrust 107
  6.5 Sequence And Relationship Of Faulting And Folding 108
  6.6 Structural Synthesis Of The Western Marwat- Khisor Ranges 109
  6.7 Structural Synthesis Of The Eastern Marwat- Khisor Ranges 111
  6.8 Structural Model Of The Study Area 112
  6.9 Structural Model Of The Salt Range And Potowar Plateau 112
  6.10 Model Of The Northern Deformed Potwar Zone 114
  6.11 Structural Model Of The NPDZ 119
8 7 Economic Importance Of The Marwat-Khisor Ranges 123
119.31 KB
  7.1 Overview 123
  7.2 Economic Industrial Raw Material And Minerals 123
  7.3 Development Of Underground Facilities 123
9 8
24.55 KB
10 9 Conclusions 130
2448.23 KB
  9.1 References 132