Motivation is the heart of teaching and learning process. It is usually defined as an internal state that arouses, directs and maintains behaviour a certain period of time. Definition of motivation varies greatly partly due to the complexity of the concept and partly because many authors tend to define motivation in terms of specific disciplines theories. However, it is the process of arousing, sustaining and regulating activities, to be precise a concept limited to some aspects such as the energetic behaviour or purposive regulation. The entire human behaviour triggers in response to some kinds of internal (physiological) or external (environmental) stimulation. Varying behaviors are, thus purposeful or goals directed and hence are the direct result of the arousal of certain motives. In other words motivation can be defined as the process of activating, maintaining and directing behaviour toward a particular goal. The process is suspended after the desired goal is obtained. Thus motivation refers to the state in which a harnesses his person behaviour for certain goals. However, motivation is one of the most important components of learning. It holds a pivotal role in the teaching learning process. Though a teacher's level of motivation occupies a very important position it always depends on the students' level of motivation which plays even more role in the cycle of teaching learning process. The main purpose of this study was to find out the motivational techniques, used by heads of institutions of higher education to motivate their teachers to make all out efforts for an excellent performance. It is. a multidimensional construct. Motivated employees are more likely to produce a superior quality product or service than those who lack the essential of motivation. All in all motivation refers to a person's desire to do the best possible job or to exert the maximum effort to perform the assigned task. Human motivation then, is the process whereby the behavior of an individual is energized, sustained and directed in order to meet individual needs and achieve organizational objectives. Following were the main objectives of this study: (a) to investigate the motivation techniques used by the heads of institutions of higher education, (b) to examine the views of teachers about the effective and ineffective motivational techniques used by their heads, (c) to identify the students' opinion about the performance of the teachers resulting from motivational techniques used by the heads, (d) to find out the impact of motivation techniques used by the heads on the performance of teachers. The nature of this study was descriptive type. Population 0 f this study were included 0 f t he following (a) Principals of degree colleges in Pakistan (b) all the teachers working in degree colleges (c) students studying in these colleges. For choosing the sample from this population, random sampling type was used. The sample constituted of 100 male and 100 female degree colleges, their heads, five teachers and twenty students were selected from each college. Questionnaires were used as research instruments for collection of data. The data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted category-wise compare responses of three groups (Principals/teachers, teachers/students and principals/students) and compare responses of male and female principals, teachers and students. To analyze the data, chi-square as a contingency test and percentage were used.
On the basis of analysis it was concluded that majority of heads used constructive as well as optimistic, appreciate intentionally, reward, constructive criticism, incentive, expressing expectations, promotion, recognition, status, personal loyalty and shown interest as motivation techniques and they, did not provide job security, instructional technology, do not consult their teachers and also give less feedback on academic matter. In the opinions of teachers effective motivation techniques were constructive criticism, maintaining discipline, encouragement of creativity, innovation, expression of expectation of the principals, guidance, appreciation, sympathetic behaviour of the principal, appropriate relief time, regular evaluation of teachers, regular payment of salary and other remuneration, financial incentives in the form of cash, bonus. While apprehends for teachers transfer, forcefully expression of his opinions, stiff dealing of heads, chide the teachers on their mistakes and discrimination in assigning duties were the techniques that negatively affected the performance of the teachers.
Following recommendations were made for the improvement of the teaching-learning situation in the higher education institutions. Heads should show honest, fair, polite, kind hearted and punctual. Heads should assign the examination duties among his teachers justly and fairly and head should ensure evaluation of teachers' performance regularly. Heads should avoid practicing the factors like apprehend for teachers transfer, stiff in their dealings and forcefully expression of his opinions for better performance of the teachers. The heads may be empowered to utilize sufficient funds for motivating teachers and students. A special training course may be arranged for educational managers, administrators and supervisors for achieving competency in motivation techniques.