I= STUDY OF AEROSOLS QUALITY IN THE PRESENCE OF SURFACTANTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO THE ANALYTICAL SYSTEM (ICP-AES)
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Title of Thesis
STUDY OF AEROSOLS QUALITY IN THE PRESENCE OF SURFACTANTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO THE ANALYTICAL SYSTEM (ICP-AES)

Author(s)
SHAHID AMIN
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Chemistry/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Session
2008
Subject
Chemistry
Number of Pages
205
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
aerosols, surfactants, analytical system, icp-aes, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, odium dodecyl sulphate, anionic, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (ctab), cationic sorbitane monopalmitate, polyoxyethylene sorbitane monopalmitate, micelles

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactants on the quality of aerosols resulting in change, enhancement or suppression of the final analyte signals. During this study the effect on signal intensities of seven analytes Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd & Pb by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) under the influence of surfactants i.e. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS); anionic, Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB); cationic and Polyoxyethylene Sorbitane Monopalmitate (Tween 40); non ionic have been investigated. The effect on the signal intensities of the metal ions have been observed first under the influence of three acids i.e. HN03, HCI and HCIO4 concentration ranged from 0.01% - 2.0%. Each surfactant has been used in three different concentrations i.e. pre-micellar (CMC) in the presence of HNO3, HCI and HCIO4.

The quality of aerosols under the influence of surfactants and acids has been examined. The general properties of surfactants i.e. lowering of surface tension which directly influence the formation of aerosols have been exploited to modify the analytical procedures for analysis by ICP-AES. The physical parameters, which directly influence the aerosols quality such as surface tension, viscosity, density and which are also major factors to contribute to the uptake rates of surfactants and acids, were measured. Droplet size of the aerosols at different surfactants and acids concentrations has been calculated using the Nukiyama and Tanasawa equation.

The signals of analytes has been determined with mineral acids matrix and surfactants leads to the overall enhanced and depression behavior at particular concentrations of each surfactant. Using surfactants, nebulisation that is very important factor, has been considered critically to observe the effect of surface tension and viscosity factors on the aerosols formation. The best region of the concentrations of surfactants under the influence of. acids has been evaluated for the determination of analytes by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

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2088.93 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
150.01 KB
2 1 Introduction
297.14 KB
  1.1 History 1
  1.2 Excitation Sources 2
  1.3 Principle Of ICP-AES 4
  1.4 Theory Of ICP-AES 7
  1.5 Performance Of ICP-AES 21
  1.6 Matrix Effects. 23
3 2 Surfactants And Their Properties
289.67 KB
  2.1 General View Of Surfactants And Their Properties 31
  2.2 Structure Of Surfactants 37
  2.3 Classification Of Surfactants 38
  2.4 The Micelles 40
  2.5 Micelles In Analytical Chemistry 47
  2.6 References 53
4 3 Experimental 59
133.3 KB
  3.1 Materials And Chemicals 59
  3.2 Instrumentation 59
  3.3 Procedures 65
  3.4 References
5 4 Results And Discussions 72
1474.99 KB
  4.1. Measurement Of Physical Parameters 72
  4.2 Instrumental Parameters 89
  4.3 Effects Of Acids And Surfactants On Signal Intensities Of ICP-AES 117
  4.4 Matrix Effect 164
  4.5 General Discussion 165
  4.6 Concluding Remarks 200