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Title of Thesis

Institute/University/Department Details
National Institute of Psychology/ Quaid-iAzam University, Islamabad In
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
nonverbal test of intelligence, general intelligence, psychometric approach, piagetian approach, cognitive approach, neurological approach, ability testing

The study was aimed at developing and standardizing an indigenous nonverbal test of intelligence for the assessment of general intelligence of Pakistani youth. The items of the test were developed using figurative material taken from our own cultural and folk heritage and were constructed in the framework of English script writing (from left to right). The test comprised of five subtests viz. Series, Matrices, Analogies, Odd One Out and Similarities. It was planned in a manner so as, to measure various aspects of intelligence including abstract reasoning, spatial relations, conceptual ability, accuracy of discrimination, education of relations and correlates. The effectiveness of the items was judged through item analysis by administering the test to a sample of 200 subjects of grade 12. In evaluating the items, three major aspects: internal consistency. discrimination index and level of difficulty were considered Only those items were retained that were internally consistent (p < .001). Items having discrimination index less than .3 and level of difficulty below .3 and above. 7 were discarded. The final draft of the test comprised 90 items; the first three subtests consist of 20 items each and the last two 15 items each. In the main study, the test was administered to 200 subjects: 100 urban and 100 rural. Three methods were used to establish reliability of the test viz., KR-20, split half and test-retest. The estimated indices of reliability were, .89, .85 and .90 respectively. To determine validity of indigenous nonverbal test of intelligence. different validity criteria were used including grade/age differentiation. correlation of the test with other measures of general ability (construct validity) and marks in HSSC examination (criterion-related validity). Significant differences in the mean scores of three grade/age groups on the subtests and the full test, except similarities subtest, were found.

To determine the construct validity of the test, factor analysis and the convergent and discriminant validation approaches were adopted To find out convergent validity. the test was correlated with Intelligence Test Battery (ITB) and adapted version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). The results demonstrate significant correlations between all these tests (p < .001). The discriminant validity was determined by correlating the test 'with Individual Obsticles Test, which was insignificant. Criterion-related validity of the test is also high (.74; p < .001). No significant differences emerged between urban and rural groups. Similarly. medium of instruction (English/Urdu) does not seem to influence the test scores. Nevertheless. significant differences were found between Science and Arts groups. Three types of norms viz., Percentiles, T scores and the Deviation IQ were developed by administering the test on a sample of 1000 subjects representative of Pakistani youth.

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2393.93 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
118.54 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
735.26 KB
  1.1 Historical Perspective 1
  1.2 The Concept of Intelligence 6
  1.3 Nature of Intelligence 9
  1.4 Differential or Psychometric Approach 10
  1.5 Developmental or Piagetian Approach 15
  1.6 Cognitive or Information Processing Approach 18
  1.7 Neurological Approach 22
  1.8 Environmental Influences on Intelligence 25
  1.9 Intelligence and Academic Achievements 28
  1.10 Nonverbal Tests of Intelligence 30
  1.11 Individually Administered Intelligence Tests 32
  1.12 Group Administered Intelligence Tests 35
  1.13 Psychological Issues in Ability Testing 40
  1.14 Current Debate on Intelligence Testing 43
  1.15 Cross-Cultural Testing of Intelligence 44
  1.16 Test Development in Pakistan 52
3 2 Rationale Of The Study 60
100.67 KB
  2.1 Objectives of the Study 68
4 3 Method 69
217.03 KB
  3.1 Test Development 69
  3.2 Development of the Test Items 69
  3.3 Format. Of the Test 71
  3.4 Types of Test Items 72
  3.5 Formation of Subtests 74
  3.6 Instructions for the Administration of Test 75
  3.7 First Try Out 75
5 4 Results 96
172.97 KB
  4.1 Item Discrimination Analysis 96
  4.2 Reliability of the Test 102
  4.3 Validity of the Test 105
  4.4 Interco relations among the Subtests 112
  4.5 Urban versus Rural Residence 114
  4.6 Urdu versus English Medium of Instruction 115
  4.7 Science Group versus Arts Group 116
6 5 Standardization Of The Test 117
105.16 KB
  5.1 Development of Norms 117
  5.2 Percentiles 121
  5.3 T Scores 123
  5.4 The Deviation IQ 126
7 6 Discussion 131
1137.61 KB
8 7 References 145
1137.6 KB
  7.1 Annexures 67