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Title of Thesis

Institute/University/Department Details
National Institute of Psychology/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
home environment, parental acceptance, parental rejection, authoritarianism, child abuse, family relations

The present study was undertaken to assess the phenomenon of child abuse and neglect as prevailing in the society and kind of abuse mainly inflicted by the parents to their children. The study also focused on the relationship of child abuse and neglect with the patterns of parental acceptance--rejection towards their children and the role these patterns played in child abuse, To explore the role of family environment in child abuse was, another objective of the study. Furthermore, the role of paternal personality characteristic of authoritarianism in child abuse and neglect was also investigated with special reference to Pakistani cultural context. 'The research was carried out in two parts i.e., pilot study, and main study. In the pilot study an indigenous Child Abuse Scale(CAS) comprising of 34 items was developed for the children of age raging from 8-12 years to identify abuse and the type of abuse. Urdu version of index of Family Relations (Shah & Aziz. 1993) was adapted to measure intra-familial interaction within the family. In addition, a Paternal Authoritarian Scale (PAS) consisting of 42 items was prepared to the asses fathers authoritarian attitude towards their children. The results of the pilot study revealed a considerably high reliability and validity for all t the three scales i.e., CAS. PAS and IFR with coeficient alpha of. 92, 86, and ,95 respectively. The main study was carried out with a randomly selected sample of 200 children boys 100 and 100 girls) and 200 fathers of the same children. The age range of the children was 8-12 years and for fathers it was 25-50 years. Children were administered four scales including Child Abuse Scale, Index of Family Relations and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, separate forms for father and mother, whereas, the sample of fathers was administered Paternal Authoritarian Scale. The data were collected from six cities of Punjab including. Lahore, Multan, Mian Chanu, Sahiwal, Gujrat and Rawalpindi-Islamabad. The results indicated that children were more emotionally or psychologically abused by the parents as compared to physical abuse. Boys and girls showed no difference with reference to level of abuse and type of abuse to which they are exposed. Severely abused children perceived their parents. both father and mother as more rejecting as compared to mildly abused children. Severely abused children also perceived their intra-familial environment as more problematic and disturbing as compared to mildly abused children. Child abuse and neglect was found to be prevalent in all socio-economic classes, while it found to be more prevalent in larger families as compared to smaller families. Moreover, parental education especially of mothers seemed to be an important contributing factor as children of highly educated mothers reported less abuse. Furthermore, the results revealed that fathers of children included in the sample had. Overall, authoritarian attitude depicting very important finding peculiar to Pakistani cultural context. The results also suggested that fathers with high educational levels might show a difference in their authoritarian attitude towards their children as compared to illiterate and less educated fathers. Fathers belonging to all levels of socio-economic. status, family size and family type were found to be equally authoritarian and it was also true for the age their level.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
169.77 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
724.2 KB
  1.1 Child Abuse: A Review Of The Phenomenon 4
  1.2 The Family And Family Environment 12
  1.3 Parental Acceptance-Rejection 17
  1.4 Parental Authoritarianism 20
  1.5 Conceptual Models Of Child Abuse 22
  1.6 Theories Of Child Abuse 28
  1.7 Factors Of Child Abuse 32
  1.8 Phenomenon Of Child Abuse In Pakistani Context 50
3 2 Objectives And Research Design 56
75.33 KB
4 3 Pilot Study 63
623.86 KB
  3.1 Method 63
  3.2 Results 77
  3.3 Discussion 112
5 4 Main Study 124
851.93 KB
  4.1 Method 124
  4.2 Results 131
  4.3 Discussion 173
6 5 Conclusion And Suggestions 195
62.12 KB
7 6 Summary 200
1023.34 KB
  6.1 References 204
  6.2 Annexure Pilot Study
  6.3 Annexures Main Study