I= COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONAL AND MILITARY LEADERSHIP IN PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONAL AND MILITARY LEADERSHIP IN PAKISTAN

Author(s)
TANVIR AKHTAR
Institute/University/Department Details
National Institute Of Psychology/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Session
1997
Subject
Psychology
Number of Pages
127
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
organizational leadership, military leadership, leadership in pakistan, power, influence, psychological profile

Abstract
The study was aimed to establish a comparative psychological profile of leadership in Pakistan. It was based on the conceptual model of leadership in which leader, followers. and situation form an ecosystem. In the ecosystem all three are affecting each other and are simultaneously being affected by each other. Results of the study have supported the model. Psychological profile of political, organizational, and military leadership have been found in accordance with the basic premises of the leadership ecosystem. In the first phase of study I, an item pool of 594 attributes of top level political, organizational, and military leaders as preferred by their followers was formed. Basing on these attributes a Leadership Assessment Scale comprising of 30 attributes alongwith their antonyms was framed. In the second phase of study I leadership assessment scale was administered 10 180 respondents giving equal representation to the political, organizational, and military groups. They were instructed to rate the leader of their respective group on an 8-point scale. In study II which was based on Fiedler's theory of LPC scores, data from 90 respondents giving equal representation to political, organizational and milita1)! leaders was obtained. Study III was a validity study conducted on a fresh sample of 90 respondents who had to rate leaders not belonging to their own group. Analysis of the data indicated that psychological profile of a political leader comprised with the attributes of political reliability, public contact, nationalist, patriotic, and democratic. Profile of an organizational leader was characterized by attributes of being professional soundness, hard work, impressive personality, honesty, and intelligence. A military leader profile included attributes of placing country before life, discipline, assertion, boldness, and ability to command and control. Correlational matrix, analysis of variance, and factor analysis of the data indicated that leadership is an interaction between the leader attributes, followers needs and the situation in which leader and followers have to operate. As the situations and followers in the political, organizational, and military groups are different, so leaders with different attributes or psychological profile are more effective in their respective setups. Swap over of roles from military to politics or from politics to organizational, and from organizational to political have mostly proved to be counter productive in Pakistan. The leaders who have changed their roles without changing their profiles in accordance with the situations and followers expectations have often proved to be unsuccessful.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Content
86.37 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
591.32 KB
  1.1 The Beginnings 1
  1.2 Definitions 3
  1.3 Leadership Approaches 4
  1.4 Trait Approach 5
  1.5 Behavioral Approach 7
  1.6 Power And Influence Approach 9
  1.7 Situational Approach 11
  1.8 Transformational And Charismatic Approach 15
  1.9 Review Of Leadership Approaches 17
  1.10 A Point Of Convergence In Different Approaches 22
  1.11 Leadership Ecosystem 24
  1.12 Leadership Psychological Profile 25
  1.13 Leadership In Pakistan 26
  1.14 Political Leadership 27
  1.15 Organizational Leadership 30
  1.16 Military Leadership 33
  1.17 Leadership Dilemma In Pakistan 36
  1.18 Comparative Psychological Profiles Of Leadership 38
  1.19 Review Of Literature On The Role Of Followers 39
  1.20 Aim And Objective Of The Study 42
3 2 Methodology 43
237.57 KB
  2.1 Pilot Study 43
  2.2 Study-I 46
  2.3 Study-II 56
  2.4 Study-III 58
  2.5 Analysis 60
4 3 Results And Their Interpretation 63
600.33 KB
5 4 Discussion 91
127.33 KB
6 5 References 101
572.06 KB
  5.1 Annexures And Appendices 112