I= IMPACT OF SCRAP PONDS ON THE BIRDS AND FLORA OF CHOLISTAN DESERT
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Title of Thesis
IMPACT OF SCRAP PONDS ON THE BIRDS AND FLORA OF CHOLISTAN DESERT

Author(s)
ANWAR HUSSAIN
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Zoology and Fisheries/ University of Agriculture Faisalabad
Session
2004
Subject
Zoology
Number of Pages
283
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
scrap ponds, cholistan desert, anthropogenic wetland, salinity control and reclamation project, scarp, flora, avifauna, rosy pelican, greater flamingo, aquatic birds, terrestrial birds

Abstract
The impact of an anthropogenic wetland created under a salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in the arid environment of Cholistan Desert, Province of the Punjab, Pakistan, on the flora and avifauna of the area was examined. Four pond sites of different ages and a reference site were defined and the data on plant and terrestrial bird communities was recorded on the fixed transect lines. The aquatic birds were counted directly on the study ponds during four counting sessions in a period of two years. The count data were analyzed for diversity indices. Indirect and direct gradient analysis using correspondence analysis (CA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) procedures were applied to identify important gradients responsible for shaping plant and animal communities in the area. The most prominent change in the vegetation of the area was indicated by the development of a thick Tamarix dioica ring fringing the evaporation ponds. Plant communities on the sand dunes were found to be less affected. The desert area in periphery of the pond habitat was found to support over 66 species of terrestrial birds with higher richness and diversity close to the ponds as compared to the far areas. In addition to these, 34 species of resident and migratory aquatic birds were found to be regular visitors in the area including some rare species of the region like the Rosy Pelican and the Greater Flamingo. A habitat succession gradient from older to the younger ponds with a low to high salinity was indicated in the SCARP ponds with a complex pattern of habitat use by the aquatic birds. Further, this pond complex was found to act as a useful buffer wetland for the water birds migrating along the Indus Flyway, Flyway-4. The water supply to the ponds needs to be ensured for healthy' ecological functioning of this wetland habitat in the long term.

Download Full Thesis
4496.98 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
176.17 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
172.92 KB
  1.1 Objectives 7
3 2 Review Of Literature 8
161 KB
  2.1 The Cholistan 8
4 3 The Study Area 22
158.66 KB
5 4 Materials And Methods 28
183.11 KB
  4.1 The Study Sites (Ponds) 28
  4.2 Duration of the Study 28
  4.3 Methodologies 31
  4.4 Software Used 34
  4.5 Relevant Estimators 34
  4.6 Time Spent on the Fieldwork 41
6 5 Results 42
2641 KB
  5.1 Part -I Vegetation Near The Study Ponds 42
  5.2 Part-II Aquatic Birds On The Scarp Ponds 102
  5.3 Part-III Terrestrial Birds Around The SCARP Ponds 134
7 6 Summary 212
1336.23 KB
  6.1 References 216
  6.2 Appendices