I= ANALYSIS OF THE OBSTACLES TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN THE PUNJAB PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT MUZAFFARGARH
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Title of Thesis
ANALYSIS OF THE OBSTACLES TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN THE PUNJAB PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT MUZAFFARGARH

Author(s)
MUHAMMAD ZAKARIA YOUSUF HASSAN
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Agri. Extension/ University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
Session
2008
Subject
Agriculture Extension
Number of Pages
259
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
gender mainstreaming, female extension agents, socio-economic insecurity, political empowerment, gender violence, gender roles

Abstract
About half of the population of Pakistan consists of females who actively participate in social and economic activities. They are not only involved in industrial activities but also in agriculture. Their activities vary a lot. Although, they are functional members of rural societies but still they are not enjoying due socio-economic status in rural communities. Their access to non-formal and extension education is limited.

In the same context, the present study was designed to analyze the obstacles to gender mainstreaming in agricultural extension in the Punjab, Pakistan: A case study of district Muzaffargarh. A multi stage random sampling technique was employed. Five hundred farm families were selected from 20 villages, 5 randomly selected from each tehsil that made a total of 1000 respondents of the study. The officiating staff of Agriculture Department (Extension Wing) and all male and female workers of one randomly selected NGO in the district served as a sample. The data were collected through pre-tested interview schedule and various statistical techniques were used to analyze the data by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Main findings of present case study indicate that mean age of husband respondents was 41.6 and that of wife respondents was 35.5 years. Majority (64.3 and 77.4%) of husband and wife respondents were illiterate, respectively. Husband respondents had various social statuses such as Nazim, Naib nazim, Councillor, Labrour councilor, Numberdar, and Member of political party but only 0.1 % of wife respondents had status of Lady councilor. Women received relatively less benefit from different sources of information that not only hindered them to avail better sources of employment but also made their position pity at home and community level. These women were also neglected by Agricultural Extension Department where all the extension agents were male who were restricted socially, customary and religiously to meet with women farmers which ultimately resulted in quite serious state of gender inequality in the field of extension education.

There was a contradiction regarding the appointments of female extension agents between the view point of husband and wife respondents. The main obstacles to gender mainstreaming in Agricultural Extension were: women were restricted to meet with the males other than blood relations, socio-economic insecurity, inadequate political empowerment, improper transportation and traveling facilities, residential problem for female extension workers, and male ego in respect of their vested dominance.

Download Full Thesis
7108.45 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
1173.34 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
268.59 KB
  1.1 Pakistan : A Birds' Eye View 1
  1.2 Problem Statement 4
  1.3 Need For The Project 15
  1.4 Objectives 17
  1.5 Assumptions 17
  1.6 Limitations 18
3 2 Review Of Literature 19
791.55 KB
  2.1 Gender Roles 19
  2.2 Gender Gap With Reference To Some Selected Socio-Economic Factors 30
  2.4 Sources Of Information 33
  2.5 Decision-Making/Authority Of Decision 36
  2.6 Gender Violence 42
  2.7 Access To Resources And Related Problems 46
  2.8 Agricultural Extension 52
  2.9 Problems Related To Gender Mainstreaming In Agricultural Extension 60
  2.10 Gender Mainstreaming 68
  2.11 Methodologies/Tools For Gender Mainstreaming 77
  2.12 Synthesis Of Review Of Literature 82
4 3 Materials And Methods 84
791.54 KB
  3.1 Study Area At A Glance 84
  3.2 Selection Of Study Area 89
  3.3 Research Population 90
  3.4 Selection Of Sample For The Study 90
  3.5 Preparation Of Interview Schedule 92
  3.6 Validity 93
  3.7 Pre-Testing 94
  3.8 Selection And Training Of Enumerators 94
  3.9 Data Collection 94
  3.10 Focus Groups 95
  3.11 Analysis Of Data 96
  3.12 Financial And Moral Help 96
  3.13 Problems Being Faced During Data Collection 97
  3.14 Theoretical Framework Of Gender Mainstreaming 97
  3.15 Conceptual Frame Work 103
  3.16 Hypothesis 104
5 4 Results And Discussion 105
4030.85 KB
  4.1 Socio-Economic Characteristics Of The Farmer Respondents 105
  4.2 Gender Roles 111
  4.3 Sources Of Information 124
  4.4 Division Of Authority In Decision Making 127
  4.5 Gender Violence 129
  4.7 Access To Resources 136
  4.8 Gender Equality 143
  4.9 Problems Of Gender Mainstreaming 145
  4.10 Gender Equality In Agricultural Education And Extension 160
  4.11 Causes Or Hurdles In Gender Mainstreaming 168
  4.12 Relationship Matrix 173
6 5 Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations 175
125.09 KB
  5.1 Summary 175
  5.2 Conclusions 178
  5.3 Factors Identified As Barriers In Gender Mainstreaming 183
  5.4 Relationship Matrix 183
  5.5 Recommendations 184
7 6 Literature Cited 186
988.81 KB
  6.1 Appendices 238