Pakistan Research Repository Home

Title of Thesis

Institute/University/Department Details
Taxila Institute of Asian Civilizations/ Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
Asian Civilizations
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
iqbal, provincial politics, british punjab, mashraqi, ahmadis, national unionist party, fazl-i-hussain, ahrars, khaksars, khilafat movements, anjuman-i-himayat-islam, muslim league, jinnah, ittehad-i-millat, sikandar hayat

The study deals with the role of Muhammad Iqbal in the provincial politics of Punjab (1926-38). A detailed and comprehensive account of the socio-economic, political and religious background of British Punjab has been traced since its annexation in 1849. A brief resume of Iqbal's life coupled with a summary of various phases of his political thought is also given which would be helpful in understanding the politics of that particular era. Besides tracing the background, origin and composition of Majlis-i-Ahrar, various agitational campaigns of party has been discussed. These include the Kashmir Movement and Anti-Ahmadiyya Movement. The working of All India Kashmir Committee, its dissolution, reorganization and role played by Iqbal in this regard are also discussed at length. An over view of the movement for the restoration of Shaheed Ganj Mosque is also included.

Formation, working, infrastructure and a brief history of the Khaksar Movement has also been discussed and analyzed. A comparative study of Iqbal and Mashraqi is also appended in which their views over various contemporary issues are elaborated. Besides providing the background and history of Jama'at-i-Ahmadiyya, the pro-British stance of Ahmadis, nature of relationship between Iqbal and Ahmadis and campaign launched by the former against the latter has also been dwelt upon. Doctrinal differences between orthodox Muslims and Ahmadis regarding Finality of Prophethood, Revelation, Resurrection of Christ, Arrival of Mahdi and institution of Jihad are also discussed, along with the Iqbal viewpoint.

Emergence of Punjab National Unionist Party and role played by it in provincial politics in late twenties and entire thirties has been discussed at length. The issues of Iqbal and other Punjabi leaders with Jinnah, split of League into two factions, role played by AIMC and reconciliation between League factions has been also analyzed. It is followed by a comparative study of political strategies of Iqbal and Fazl-i-Hussain. An attempt has been made to trace back the growth and working of League in Punjab since 1906. Besides highlighting the significance of Iqbal's Allahabad address as the basis of Pakistan movement, Iqbal's role in RTC's and Punjab Communal Agreement have also been dealt with. Sikandar - Jinnah Pact and its implications on Punjab politics and reservations of Iqbal and other urbanities have also been recorded. In the conclusion it is deduced that it was the miraculous impact of Iqbal's poetry, coupled with his philosophical reasoning and political acumen, which goaded on the Muslims to firmly stick to the idea of establishment of separate Muslim state. Under the charismatic leadership of Jinnah, they voted in favour of separate homeland and rejected the concept of composite Indian nationalism. Thus the Muslim community of India embraced Iqbal's concept of Islam and separate nationhood and spurned the agenda of pro-Congress nationalist Ulama as well as of pro-British Unionist Party, who did not conceive the departure of imperialist forces in the post second world war period.

Download Full Thesis
6886.38 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
295.01 KB
2 1 British Punjab : 1849-1926 15
606.86 KB
  1.1 Historical Background 15
  1.2 Geographic and Demographic Profile 23
  1.3 Role of Feudal Elite in Politics 25
  1.4 Development of Canal Colonies 32
  1.5 Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900 35
  1.6 Evolution of Local Self Government 37
  1.7 Educational Backwardness and Efforts for its Improvement 43
  1.8 The Religious Polarization 47
  1.9 Slow Pace of Political and Constitutional Development 56
3 2 Iqbal : His Life and Times 63
225.57 KB
  2.1 Evolution of Iqbal's Thought - An Overview 71
4 3 Iqbal and the Ahrars 83
923.75 KB
  3.1 Background 83
  3.2 Formation and Initial Working 86
  3.3 Organization and Structure 88
  3.4 Aims and Objectives 91
  3.5 Ahrars and Congress 92
  3.6 Iqbal , Ahrars and The Kashmir Agitation 94
  3.7 Anti- Ahmadiyya Movement 122
  3.8 Ahrars and Fazl-i-Hussain 131
  3.9 The Shaheed Ganj Dispute 135
  3.10 Majlis-i-Ahrar in Retrospect 156
5 4 Iqbal and the Khaksars 162
894.43 KB
  4.1 Formation of Khaksar Tehrik 162
  4.2 Organization and Salient Features 165
  4.3 Initial Working and Development: A Resume 169
  4.4 Mashriqi and Hitlor 176
  4.5 Mashriqi and Iqbal 180
  4.6 Khaksar Tehrik -An Appraisal 236
6 5 Iqbal and the Ahmadis 240
511.1 KB
  5.1 Origin and Development 240
  5.2 Inclination Towards British 247
  5.3 Iqbal and Ahmadism 251
  5.4 Doctrinal Differences between Ahmadis -Orthodox Muslims and Iqbal's Viewpoint 258
  5.5 Iqbal-Ahmadis Relations: An Appraisal 274
  5.6 Epilogue 281
7 6 Iqbal and the Unionists 285
710.59 KB
  6.1 Formation of Unionist Party 286
  6.2 Aims and Objectives 287
  6.3 Initiation of Reforms by Fazl-i-Hussain 288
  6.4 Factionalism amongst Unionists 291
  6.5 Pro-Rural Policies 293
  6.6 Iqbal in the Punjab Council 294
  6.7 Iqbal and the Politics in Punjab (1927-30) 306
  6.8 Muslim Politics in Twenties-An Appraisal 328
  6.9 Iqbal and Fazl-i-Hussain 330
8 7 Iqbal and the Muslim League 347
717.68 KB
  7.1 Allahabad Address - An Interpretation 347
  7.2 Role of Iqbal in RTCs and Punjab Affairs (1931-34) 356
  7.3 The New Constitution and Political Activity in Punjab 369
  7.4 Sikandar - Jinnah Pact 389
9 8 Conclusion 407
2739.87 KB
  8.1 Endnotes and References 414
  8.2 Bibliography 572
  8.3 Appendices 598
  8.4 Glossary 647