Pakistan Research Repository Home

Title of Thesis

Saleem Ahmad
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Biological Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
Plant Taxonomy
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
saussurea dc, s. afghana, s. albescens, s. andryaloides, s. atkinsonii clarke, s. bracteata decne, s. candolleana wall, s. ceratocarpa dcne, s. chenopodiifolia, s. chitralica duthie, s. c hondrilliodes, s. c ostus, s. diffusa lipsch, s. elliptica clarke, s. gilesii hemsl, s. glacial, s. gnaphalodes, s. gossypiphora d. don, s. heteromalla, s.jacea, s.leptophylla, s. obvallata, s. roylei, s. simpsonialla, jurillocera, eriocoryne, amphilaena, frolovia, saussurea, s. glanduligera, s. medusa maxim, s. taraxacifolia

The genus Saussurea DC. (Compositae) of Pakistan has been studied. Plant specimens of the genus were studied at the Herbaria of Quaid-i-Azam University (ISL), Pakistan Museum of Natural History (PMNH), National Herbarium (RAW) and University of Karachi (KUH). Specimens of the genus borrowed from Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh (E) and Natural History Museum, Paris (P) were also examined. Specimen images, including some Type specimens, obtained from British Museum of Natural History (BM), Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum, Berlin (BGBM), and Royal Botanic Garden, Kew (K) were studied.

The study showed the presence of 23 species of the genus distributed in five sub genera from Pakistan. These are S. afghana (DC.) Sch.-Bip., S. albescens (DC.) Sch.-Bip., S. andryaloides (DC.) Sch.-Bip., S. atkinsonii Clarke, S. bracteata Decne., S. candolleana Wall. ex DC., S. ceratocarpa Dcne. S. chenopodiifolia K latt., S. chitralica Duthie, S. c hondrilliodes W inkl., S. c ostus (Falc.) Lipcsh., S. diffusa Lipsch., S. elliptica Clarke, S. gilesii Hemsl., S. glacial is Herd., S. gnaphalodes (Royle) Sch.-Bip., S. gossypiphora D. Don, S. heteromalla (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz., S.jacea (Klotzsch.) Clarke, S.leptophylla Hemsl., S. obvallata (DC.) Edgew., S. roylei (DC.) Sch.-Bip., and S. simpsonialla (Field. & Gard.) Lipsch. One species belonged to the sub genus Jurillocera (Baill.) Lipsch., four to subgen. Eriocoryne (DC.) Hook. f., two each in subgenera Amphilaena (Stsch.) Lipsch. and Frolovia (DC.) Lipsch. The remaining 14 species belonged to the sub genus Saussurea. Three species, viz. S. glanduligera Sch.-Bip., S. medusa Maxim., and S. taraxacifolia Wall. ex DC. have been listed as having doubtful occurrence in Pakistan. The nomenclature has been updated, keys to the taxa have been provided at every level and each species has been described in detail. Specimens examined have cited for each species described. Except for S. heteromalla (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz., majority of the species are confined to the temperate to alpine regions in the mountainous areas of the country.

Numerical taxonomic study of the species was also conducted to find out relationship among the species studied. Thirty two characters were used for studying variations in quantitative as well as qualitative characters between the species. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the species was carried out to produce dendrograms showing grouping of the species on the basis of phenetic resemblances. Most of the clusters reasonably corresponded to the subgeneric division of the species. Anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of some species of Saussurea DC. was also carried out. The study revealed that the stomata in the species studied were anomocytic, i.e. the guard cells lacked subsidiary cells. Variations in the outline of epidermal cells and number of stomata per square mm were observed among the species.

Most of the species of Saussurea DC. of Pakistan are uncommon or rare. Several of the species are extremely rare and may be considered vulnerable or endangered.

Download Full Thesis
4389.74 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
185.8 KB
2 1 Introduction 4
408.27 KB
  1.1 Saussurea Dc. 4
  1.2 The Study Area: Pakistan 4
  1.3 Phytogeographic Regions Of Pakistan 9
  1.4 Flora Of Pakistan 13
  1.5 Numerical Taxonomy 15
  1.6 Anatomy In Relation To Taxonomy 17
3 2 Literature Review 19
127.31 KB
4 3 Materials And Methods 24
153.36 KB
  3.1 Taxonomic Study 24
  3.2 Numerical Taxonomy 25
  3.3 Anatomical Study 31
5 4 Results 33
2974.7 KB
  4.1 Taxonomy 34
  4.2 Numerical Taxonomy 119
  4.3 Anatomical Study 138
6 5 Discussion 144
325.76 KB
7 6 Selected References 155
435.03 KB
  6.1 Index Of Exsiccatae 162
  6.2 Index Of Collectors 167
  6.3 Index Of Scientific Names 171