I= GENETIC REGULATION OF SEED YIELD AND OIL QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS. L
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Title of Thesis
GENETIC REGULATION OF SEED YIELD AND OIL QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS. L

Author(s)
Sher Aslam Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Biological Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
Session
2006
Subject
Biological Sciences
Number of Pages
2007
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
sunflower helianthus annuus. l, cytoplasmic male sterile lines, seed yield, oil quality, palmetic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid

Abstract
This study was conducted involving eight sunflower parents in which four cytoplasmic male sterile lines, TS-17, TS-18, TS-228, TS-335 and four restorers 291RGI, TR-9, R-25, TR-6023 and their sixteen F1 hybrids were used at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar Pakistan. Genetic dissimilarities based on Ward's methods revealed five clusters. Cluster I, II & III, comprised thirteen genotypes while cluster IV & V comprised of eleven genotypes. Female parents were mostly observed with the respective F1 hybrids, denoting that females contributing same protein banding profile. Mostly all the parents were observed in different clusters representing maximum genetic diversity to be incorporated for gene recombination. Heterosis and heterobeltiosis, line x tester analysis of combining ability and simple correlation was used to identify the mid and high parent heterosis, general combing ability, specific combining ability, gene action and simple correlation among characters. Characters studied were days to first flowering, days to 100 percent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, stem girth, stem curvature, number of leaves, intemodes length, leaf area, head diameter, sterile zone diameter, number of bracts, number of achenes head-1, 100-seed weight, yield hectare-1, harvest index, moisture factor, oil contents, palmetic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid.

Significant values of heterosis and heterobeltiosis were observed for all the F1 hybrids for all characters except arachidic acid and behenic acid. Heterosis vis-a-vis mean values suggests that the F1 hybrids TS-335 x 291RGI is superior for days to maturity, stem curvature, harvest index and oil contents; TS-18 x TR-6023 for 100-seed weight and linoleic acid; TS-17 x 291 RGI for plant height and TS-18 x 291 RGI for yield hectare-1. These F1 hybrids are recommended for further evaluation in sunflower breeding program. The same F1hybrids also exhibited maximum heterobeltiosis with only one deviation i.e. TS-335 x TR-9 instead of TS-335 x 291RGI showed desirable heterosis for stem curvature, which may be attributed to environmental effects.

Line x testers analysis of combining ability was used to identify the potential parents and crosses along with gene action. Both the parents, lines and testers showed significant variation for all the traits except plant height. The potential general combining ability female parent was TS-18 having highest general combining ability values for days to first flowering, plant height, stem curvature, intemodes length, leaf area, number of bracts, number of achenes head-1, 100-seed weight, yield hectare-1, harvest index, moisture factor, palmetic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid; TS-17 for days to 100 percent flowering, days to maturity, stem girth, number of leaves, head diameter, sterile zone diameter, oleic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid and TS-335 for oil contents. While the male parents 291RGI having highest general combining ability effects for plant height, stem curvature, leaf area, 100-seed weight, yield hectare-1, moisture factor, palmetic acid and arachidic acid; TR-9 for number of leaves, intemodes length, sterile zone diameter, number of bracts, number of achenes head-1, stearic acid, linoleic acid and behenic acid; R-25 for days to first flowering, days to 100 percent flowering, days to maturity, harvest index and oileic acid and TR-6023 for stem girth, head diameter and oil contents. Among these parents TS-17, TS-18, TR -9 and 291 RGI are recommended, having maximum general combining ability effects which may be exploited for varietal improvement in different cross combination especially in synthetic production. The potential specific combining ability crosses were TS-18 x R-25 showing highest specific combining ability effects for days to 100 percent flowering, days to maturity, sterile zone diameter, harvest index and oileic acid; TS-335 x TR-9 for days to first flowering, head diameter, 100-seed weight and moisture factor; TS-335 x TR-6023 for stem girth, leaf area and number of achenes head-1; TS-17 x R - 25 for oil contents and behenic acid and TS-18 x TR-6023 for yield hectare-1 and linoleic acid. These crosses are recommended for further exploration as having highest specific combining ability values, which may lead to the selection of desirable segregates. Non-additive type of gene action was observed in the traits days to maturity, stem girth, number of leaves, intemodes length, leaf area, head diameter, sterile zone diameter, number of bracts, number of achenes head-1, 100-seed weight, harvest index, moisture factor, oil contents, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid, which are desirable for heterosis breeding and may be exploited in hybrid seed production, while the rest of characters manifested additive type of gene action, these characters may further be improved through simple selection methods in early generations. Further exploration of these crosses having highest specific combining ability values may lead to the selection of desirable segregates.

The correlation study has indicated that days to maturity was positively correlated with days to first flowering, days to 100 percent flowering, internodes length and stem girth; plant height with stem girth, number of leaves, days to first flowering, days to 100 percent flowering and internodes length; yield hectare-1 with leaf area, head diameter, number of achenes head-1, 100-seed weight, number of bracts and harvest index; harvest index with number of achenes head-1, 100-seed weight and yield hectare-1 and oil contents with palmetic acid, stearic acid and behenic acid. It is evident from the present study that to evolve sunflower hybrid with early maturity, short stature, maximum yield hectare-1 and high oil contents focus should be given to select parents having maximum stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, head diameter, number of bracts, number of achenes head-1, 100-seed weight, harvest index, oil contents, palmetic acid, stearic acid and behenic acid and minimum days to maturity and internodes length.

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
449.85 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
176.81 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 6
952.92 KB
  2.1 Heterosis 6
  2.2 Combining Ability 13
  2.3 Correlation 21
4 3 Materials And Methods 32
331.08 KB
  3.1 Selection Of Parents 32
  3.2 Hybridization To Produce F 1 s 34
  3.3 Germplasm Evaluation 34
  3.4 Statistical Analysis 37
5 4 Results 42
2478.64 KB
  4.1 Sodium Dodecyle Sulphate Poly- Acralamide Gel Electrophoresis ( Sds -Page ) 42
  4.2 Heterosis 47
  4.3 Line X Tester Analysis 82
  4.4 Simple Correlation 117
6 5 Discussion 126
1165.36 KB
7 6 Summary 158
178.65 KB
8 7 Literature Cited 153
364.63 KB
9 8 Appendices 175
1158.42 KB