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Title of Thesis

Ghulam Mujtaba Shah
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Plant Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
Plant Sciences
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
siran valley, mansehra, ethnobotanical profile, floristic diversity, conservation status, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms, plants biodiversity

The present studies were aimed to investigate ethnobotanical profile, floristic diversity and conservation status of threatened flora of Siran Valley. The study area is located in the Hazara Division, District Mansehra of the North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P), Pakistan. The area is gifted with diverse and unique flora, as it is located in the Himalayas, the major ecological zone of Pakistan. The people are mostly poor and depend on plant resources for their domestic needs. The study was carried out to analyze traditional knowledge including local names, general distribution, flowering period, part used, habit, habitat, medicinal and other uses, market values and taxonomic diversity of flora of the area. Field surveys were conducted by adopting predefined questionnaires. During the present study, a total of 733 plant species belonging to pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms were collected, identified, preserved and voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. Pteridophytes consisted of 46 species; Gymnosperms 10 species of belonging to 4 families and 671 Angiosperms belonging to 103 families (16 families of monocots and 87 families of dicots) were collected from the research area, preserved, and presented as checklist. The highest numbers of plants 84 collected were belonging to family Asteraceae followed by Poaceae 47 species, Rosaceae 40 spp. and Apiaceae/Umbelliferae 22 species. Based on the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal usage, the major usage types include medicinal plantsl72 spp., natural dyes 12spp., fodder 62spp., honey bee flora 32spp., wild vegetables 55spp, fuel wood 72spp., timber 53 spp., plants used to make agricultural appliances 37spp., fences and hedgesI9spp., edible fruits 32spp., ethnoveterinary medicine 27spp. and poisonous plants 29 spp. Use value (UV) of 147 species of economic value was calculated based on information gathered by interviewing local collectors who make large number of ethnobotanical collection, herds men, local healers, women and children of the community. Most commonly used medicinal plants species of Siran Valley are Atropa acuminata, Achillea millefolium, Artemisia vulgaris, Adhatoda vasica, Bergenia ciliata, Berberis lycium, Chenopodium album, Colchicum luteum, Foeniculum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum, Juglans regia, Melia azedarach, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum basilicum, Pimpinella stewartii, Podophyllum hexandrum, Paeonia emodi, Punka granatum, Skimmia laureola, Swertia chirita, Thymus serpyllum and Zanthoxylum armatum etc. Bulk of the medicinal plants collected in the area is rhizomatous. As regard the availability of medicinal plants collected, 37% are available in the month of August, 26% in March and April, 11 % in December and January, 17%in September and November while 9% of the medicinal plants are available throughout the year. Women followed by children have been identified as the principle gatherers of medicinal plants. The medicinal plants like Geranium wallichianum, Podophyllum hexandrum, and Bergenia ciliate Zanthoxylum armatum etc. are consumed locally and sold in the markets of Abbottabad, Rawalpindi, Peshawar and Mansehra thus an additional source of income. Most of the plants are used for multiple purposes. Literature survey revealed that 83 plant species growing in the Siran Valley are used in Europe medicinally. Biodiversity of Siran Valley is however under high biotic pressure and being lost continuously following habitat fragmentation and destruction from clearing and burning of forests to make more land available for agriculture, ever-growing local demands for fuel wood, fodder and grazing land and ruthless collection of medicinal plants. Conservation status of 52 species was evaluated through IUCN (1994- 2001) criterion. Among 53 threatened species evaluated for conservation status, 20 species were found Endangered (E), 16 species Critically Endangered (CE) and 16 species , Vulnerable (VU). An ex-situ conservation effort was made by cultivating medicinal plants including (Achillea m illefolium, Atropa acuminata, Geranium wallichianum Lavatera kashmiriana and Paeonia emodi). Seeds of important endangered tree species Betula utilus, Prunus cornuta, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer caesium, Taxus wallachiana, Ulmus wallichiana were collected, and nursery was raised with the collaboration of forest department. Plants were distributed among the local community. The studies confirmed that the area possesses great potential for cultivation and sustainable harvesting of economically important plant resources. It has been concluded that establishment of botanical gardens and kitchen gardens, may be best ex-situ conservation strategy that can be adopted for sustainable utilization of plant resources of the area. While community involvement by protecting their intellectual property rights will be best in-situ conservation measure for adoption.

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19694.59 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
377.68 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
1743.36 KB
  1.1 Background And Rationale 1
  1.2 Introduction To The Study Area 3
  1.3 Flora And Fauna 6
  1.4 People 15
  1.5 Plants Biodiversity-Pakistan Scenario 20
  1.6 Ethnobotany 32
  1.7 Plants Description And Taxonomy 39
  1.8 Objectives Of The Study 41
3 2 Materials And Methods 43
200.67 KB
  2.1 Field Survey 43
  2.2 Survey Of Traditi0nal Knowledge 43
  2.3 Data Collection Pertinent Of Conservation Status 45
  2.4 Documentation Of The Research Data 48
4 3 Results 49
15435.93 KB
  3.1 Plant Biodiversity Of Siran Valley 49
  3.2 Ethnobotany Of Siran Valley 81
  3.3 Conservation Issues 286
5 4 Discussion 300
1647.5 KB
  4.1 Plant Biodiversity 300
  4.2 Ethnobotany And Documentation Of Traditional Knowledge 304
  4.3 Threatened Flora And Conservation Efforts 335
6 5 References 347
775.06 KB
  5.1 Annexure