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Title of Thesis

Taous Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Pharmacognosy/ University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
medicinal plants, trichodesma indicum, paeonia emodi, aconitum leave, sauromatum guttatum, ethanolic extracts, trichodesma indicum, aconitum laeve, paeonia emodi, sauromatum guttatum, heamagglutination, spasmolytic activities, brine-shripm, phenolic contents

In present study, the phytomedicinal and agrochemical potentials of ethanolic extracts obtained from selected plants of Pakistan including Trichodesma indicum (whole plant), Aconitum laeve (roots), Paeonia emodi (aerial parts) and Sauromatum guttatum (corms, leaves and berries) were analyzed through measuring their various in vitro biological and pharmacological activities. The standard parameters of investigation used in this study are antifungal, antibacterial, herbicidal, insecticidal, heamagglutination, spasmogenic/spasmolytic activities, cytotoxcity against brine-shripm, enzyme inhibition activities against urease Oack bean and Bacillus pasteuril), α-chymotrypsin and lipoxygenase and radical scavenging activities. During this research work the extracts of all plants mentioned earlier were also subjected to total phenolic contents determination and elemental analysis separately.

The crude extract of P. emodi showed excellent results during this investigation, therefore, it was fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water soluble fractions. All these subsequent fractions were also examined for enzyme inhibition against urease and α-chymotrypsin, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents. These fractions were also tested for spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities.

Out of the tested extracts, only the extract from corm of S. guttatum displayed antimicrobial activities exhibiting remarkable (75%) antifungal activity against Microsporum canis and good (-65%) antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes, moderate (-51 %) inhibition against P. aeruginosa while a weak inhibitory activity was observed against P. mirabilis, S. typhi, and S. boydii. All the extracts exhibited excellent herbicide activity against Lemna minor and except A. laeve, completely inhibited the plant growth at 500 µg/mL. These extracts also showed good insecticidal activity with the highest mortality (80% each) being observed with S. guttatum berries extract against the Bruchus pisorum and with T. indicum against R. dominica. Trichodesma indicum displayed a strong agglutination activity while P. emodi displayed a moderate and S. guttatum (corms) a weak agglutination activity in human RBCs. In cytotoxicity bioassay, the extracts derived from the corm and berries of S. guttatum exhibited significant toxicity against brine shrimps. They are having LD50 values lesser than 1000 µg /mL while other extracts exhibited LD50values higher than 1000 µg /mL . Therefore, it can be concluded that they possess a low general toxicity.

During the antispasmodic activity in the isolated rabbit jejunum, all the plant extracts caused reduction both in the normal and acetylcholine-induced contractions. The extract from A. laeve displayed excellent spasmolytic activity in dose dependant manner and almost diminished (-95%) the normal contraction of the isolated rabbit jejunum at the 0.25 mg/mL final bath concentration. The extract of T. indicum inhibited the spontaneous contractions of the jejunum in dose dependant fashion and caused 78% inhibition at the highest tested dose Le., 5.0 mg/mL. The results showed that S. guttatum (corms) extract possess reasonable antispasmodic activity and inhibited the spontaneous contractions of the isolated jejunum by 69% in the highest tested dose Le., 2 mg/mL. The extract of P. emodi displayed a significant spasmolytic activity on the isolated rabbit jejunum in a dose dependant manner and inhibited the normal of jejunum contractions by 76% when the final bath concentration was 5 mg/mL. During screening of the subsequent fractions of crude extract of P. emodi, interesting results were obtained with water soluble fraction because unlike its native crude extract it displayed an overall spasmogenic activity which increased drastically with the increase in the dose level at first but with further increase in dose a declining trend was observed. The n-butanol fraction of P. emodi exhibited a very low spasmolytic activity as compared to the native crude extract. On the other hand, a tremendous spasmolytic activity was exhibited by this ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of P. emodi and was found more potent than the native crude extract and at 1.0 mg/mL dose level the jejunum contractile activity ceased completely. Similarly, the chloroform fraction also displayed a reasonable spasmolytic activity and inhibited the spontaneous contractions of the isolated rabbit's jejunum by 70.289% at the maximum tested dose i.e., 2 mg/mL. All the crude extracts reduced the acetylcholine induced contractions in the isolate rabbit jejunum to various levels. The most potent extracts in this regards were found to be those derived from the A. laeve and P. emodi.

The crude extracts obtained from T. indicum, A. laeve and all three parts of S. guttatum (corms, leaves and berries) displayed no inhibitory activity against urease from both jack bean and B. pasteurii. The crude extract obtained from P. emodi, however, displayed a significant urease inhibitory activity causing 74 and 80% inhibition of jack bean and B. pasteur;; urease respectively. On examining the subsequent fractions of the crude extract from P. emodi for enzyme inhibition against urease from both sources, the highest urease inhibitory activity was contained in n-butanol fraction with 86 and 91% inhibition against the jack bean and B. pasteurii urease, respectively.

The extracts derived from T. indicum exhibited good enzyme inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase and caused the inhibition of the said enzyme by 64.5 %. In case of A. laeve, the weakest (37.7 %) inhibitory activity was observed against the lipoxygenase. The extract derived from P. emodi and leaves of S. guttatum demonstrated excellent lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and each inhibited the tested enzyme by 90 %. The extracts obtained from berries of S. gullatum also showed good inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase and caused 65 % inhibition of this enzyme.

The extracts obtained from T. indicum, A. laeve and various parts (corms, leaves and berries) of S. guttatum afforded only a weak radical scavenging activity (RSA). The crude ethanolic extract from P. emodi afforded a promising RSA and caused 83% scavenging of the tested free radical. Although, all the subsequent fractions of P. emodi crude extract possessed good to significant antioxidant activity but have lower antioxidant activities than the native crude extract except chloroform fraction which exhibited 85 % inhibition in this bioassay.

The data obtained in the current study for the RSA and total phenol contents for the selected plants' crude extracts and subsequent fractions in case of P. emodi was, when analyzed for any possible correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenol contents, then a relationship between the two parameters was observed in majority of cases.

For the elemental analysis, SEM-EDX technique was first time applied to the crude extracts evaluation during this study. As expected, Carbon and Oxygen were the major elements roughly in equal ratios in majority of cases. Chlorine and Potasium were also detected in all plants. The Chlorine is most abundant in S. guttatum (berries) out of the tested plants while Potassium was found in highest concentration in various parts of S. guttatum. Aluminum was only present in A. laeve and P. emodi. Sulphur was detected only in S. guttatum (corms and leaves) and T. indicum. Uniquely in the tested plants, S. guttatum (corms) also contained Magnesium and Phosphorous.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
402.88 KB
2 1 Introduction 2
228.52 KB
  1.1 Brief Introduction 2
  1.2 History Of Plants In Medicine 3
  1.3 Medicinal Plants: A Re-Emerging Health Aid 6
  1.4 The Medicinal Flora Of Pakistan 8
  1.5 The Benefits Of The Current Project 9
3 2 Literature Review 12
297.76 KB
  2.1 General Overview Of The Selected Plants 12
  2.2 Literature Review Of The Selected Plants 14
4 3 Experimental 26
309.09 KB
  3.1 General Notes 26
  3.2 Plants Materials 26
  3.3 Preparation Of Extracts 27
  3.4 Biological Activities 28
  3.5 Total Phenol Determination 38
  3.6 Elemental Analysis 39
5 4 Results And Discussion 41
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  4.1 General Overview 41
  4.2 Antifungal Bioassay 42
  4.3 Antibacterial Activity 44
  4.4 Herbicidal Activity 47
  4.5 Insecticidal Activity 52
  4.6 Haemagglutination Activity 57
  4.7 Brine-Shrimp Lethality Bioassay 61
  4.8 Spasmogeic And Sppasmolytic Activities 64
  4.9 Urease Inhibition 86
  4.10 ‘-Chymotrypsin Inhibition 92
  4.11 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition 96
  4.12 Radical Scavenging Activity( RSA) 100
  4.13 Total Phenolic Contents 108
  4.14 Elemental Composition 108
6 5 Conclusion 117
462.63 KB
  5.1 References 122