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Title of Thesis

Farzana Shahid
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Sociology/ University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
gender differentials, barani, arid, punjab, rural women, farm activities, food production, livestock management, crop production, farm families

Rural women in Barani (arid) Punjab are mostly engaged in agriculture. Over the last few decades, changes in development policies and thus technologies, it is argued frequently, have resulted in a changed food production system with a considerable impact on the role that women used to play in agriculture. It is not only the role of women in agriculture but, it is assumed; the dynamics of rural economies have also been changed. The present study attempts to examine the impact of technological development on the gender in rural areas of Barani Punjab.

The analysis reflects that social structure of barani areas is characterized as low economic status of women. The majority of the women is illiterate or has very little schooling. Thus, they lack access to economic opportunities and their participation in the formal labor market is very low. Purdah (covering face) is part of class structure and is a symbol of status. Participation of women in farm activities has direct relationship with the economic status of the family. In the villages with fewer imbalances in power structure, women participate more in economic activities.

When women's contribution in food production was analyzed, it provided a good comparison of gender division of labor. Women tend to participate more in livestock management than in crop production. Women are more engaged in linking livestock and crop production. They move inputs and outputs of livestock and crop production. They bring, process and make crop output available to livestock as fodder and feed. They also clean livestock sheds and process manure to make compost for crop production. In the crop production, the role of women also varies in different crops. Except in seed preparation and cleaning, women contribute less in earlier stages of crop production and play dominant role in post harvest period. They are involved in processing farm produce, storing, drying and winnowing. They also have better understanding of weeds and their use as fodder for livestock. Their contribution is of more significance in seed storage and preparation of seed for sowing.

Introduction of technologies in crop production, in general, has negative impact on the contribution of women in crop sector. It is found that agricultural technologies are more male oriented. Thus, women do less productive and economically inferior activities.

Women are also losing their land rights and control over land. The present study also identifies areas for intervention and suggests some improvements needed in technology development.

Download Full Thesis
33175.06 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
1209.63 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
3449.39 KB
  1.1 Background 1
  1.2 An Overview Of The Economy 3
  1.3 Role Of Farm Families 13
  1.4 Women And Technology Development 15
  1.5 Gender Differentials 18
  1.6 Current Status Of Women 20
  1.7 Need For The Study 23
  1.8 Objectives Of The Study 27
  1.9 Hypotheses 27
  1.10 Presentation Of The Study 27
3 2 Literature Review 29
5327.72 KB
  2.1 Introduction 29
  2.2 Theoretical Perspectives 29
  2.3 Socio-Cultural Institutions And Values 41
  2.4 Gender And Development Concept 43
4 3 Research Methodology 72
3062.73 KB
  3.1 Introduction 72
  3.2 Research Model 73
  3.3 Research Method 76
  3.4 Type Of Farmers 78
  3.5 Estimation Of Statistics 80
  3.6 Development Of Questionnaire 83
  3.7 Data Collection 84
  3.8 Analysis Process 87
  3.9 Emerging Issues 95
5 4 Analysis 98
12993.43 KB
  4.1 General Findings 98
  4.2 Socio-Economic Profile Of The Respondents 100
  4.3 Gender Division Of Labor In Agriculture 118
  4.4 Factors Affecting Gender Division Of Labor 126
  4.5 Gender Division Of Labor In Livestock Management 142
  4.6 Factors Affecting Division Of Labor In Livestock Activities 147
  4.7 Crop Livestock Interface 152
  4.8 Correlation Between Factors Affecting Participation Of Male 155
  4.9 Correlation Between Factors Affecting Participation Female 157
  4.10 Technology And Gender Role In Agriculture 159
  4.11 The Gender Autonomy Of Decision Making 179
  4.12 Access And Control Over Resources 201
  4.13 Media Access 208
  4.14 General Perceptions 213
6 5 Conclusions And Recommendations 227
2553.09 KB
  5.1 Findings 230
  5.2 Recommendations 238
7 6 Bibliography
1612.97 KB
8 7 Annexure
3352.74 KB