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Title of Thesis

Ejaz Ahmed
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Chemistry/ University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
haloxylon recurvum, silybum marianum, aerva persica, medicinal plants, chenopodiaceae, compositae, asteraceae, amaranthaccac

God has gifted Pakistan with enormous varieties of medicinal plants. Out of these only 20% have so far been evaluated for their therapeutic potentials. Therefore, there is a need of coordinated and well-organized efforts in the area of chemistry of indigenous medicinal plants. The present PhD thesis deals with the pharmacochemical studies on three indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan namely Haloxylon recurvum, Silybum marianum and Aerva persica. The thesis is, therefore, presented in the following three parts:

PART-A :Phytochemical Studies on Haloxylon recurvum Bunge ex Boiss. PART-B: Phytochemical Studies on Silybum marianum Gaerth. PART-C: Phytochemical Studies on Aerva persica Burn.

PART-A: Phvtochemical Investie:ations on Haloxvlon recurvum Bune:e ex Boiss Haloxylon recurvum Bunge ex Boiss (Chenopodiaceae) grows in the desert and barren areas of Pakistan. Haloxylon recurvum is traditionally reported for its toxicity and applied externally on scorpion and snake stings. The ash is used for internal ulcers. Phytochemical studies on the methanolic extracts of whole plant, collected from Cholistan (Pakistan), have resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of seven new and nine known compounds.


Compounds isolated for the first time from Haloxvlon recurvum (1)β-Amyrin (72) (2)β-Amyrin acetate (73) (3)Stigmasterol (74) (4)5α, 8 α -Epidioxyergosta-6, 22-dien-3 β-01 (75). (5)5 α, 8 α-Epidioxyergosta-6, 9(11), 22-trien- 3 β-01 (76). (6)Ursolic acid (77) (7)Dillenic acid E (78) (8)Olean-12(13)-en-3 β -hexadecanoate (79) (9)Stigmasterol 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside (80).

PART -B: Phvtochemical investie:ations on Silvbum marianum Gaerth. Silybum marianum Gaerth. belongs to the family Compositae (Asteraceae). It is a medicinal plant widely used in traditional European medicine. Its name comes from the conspicuous Zebra-like appearance of its leaves. The species S. marianum. is also known as "Holy Thistle", "St Mary's Thistle", "Blessed Thistle", "Milk Thistle", or "Our Lady's Milk Thistle". Silybum marianum is traditionally used in phytomedicine as anti-oxidative, antihepatitis, antiulcerogenic, anti fibrotic, hapatoprotective, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, liver regenerative, hypocholesterolemic and a potent inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiestrase. The hypoglycemic activity of silymarin and silibinin extract from S. marianum has been studied only in type 2 diabetis mellitus. A fruit of S. marianum contains a relatively high amount (approx. 20%) of oil. It is therefore of interest as a natural source of vitamin E. Phytochemical studies on the whole plant material, collected from Kashmir (Pakistan), have resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of three new triterpenoids of lanostane series. In addition. eleven known compounds have also been isolated for the first time from this species.


Compounds isolated for the first time from Silvhum marianum (1)β -Sitosterol (84) (2)Benzoic acid (85) (3)4-Hydroxy benzoic acid (86) (4)Oleanolic 'acid (87) (5)Ethyl gallate (88) (6)1, 5-Dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (89) (7)Gallic Acid (90) (8)2-Hydroxybenzoic acid (91) (9)3,5, 7-Trihydroxy-6, 4' -dimethoxyflavone (92) (l0)3,5, 4'-Trihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (93) (11)β -Sitosterol 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside (94)

PART-C: Phytochemical Investigations on Aerva persica Burn Bunt. Aerva persica Burn. belongs to the family Amaranthaccac and has found diverse medicinal uses in the indigenous systems of medicine. It has been used in headache and also as demulcent. It is also used for the treatment of dysentery, gonorrhea and kidney disorders, and cutaneous affections. The systematic phytochemical studies on the whole plant material, collected from Cholistan (Pakistan), have led to the isolation and structure elucidation of a new flavonoid. Beside, a number of unreported compounds have also been isolated and characterized.


Compounds isolated for the first time from Aerva Persica (1) Methyl grevillate (96) (2) 5,4' -Dihydroxy-3,6, 7-trimethoxyflavone (97). (3) 5-Hydroxy-3,6, 7 ,4' -tetramethoxyflavone (98) (4) Apigenin 7-O- β.D-glucopyranoside (99) (5) β-Sitosteryl acetate (100) (6) Lupeol (101) (7) Lupeol acetate (102) (8) 4-Ethoxy benzoic acid (103) (9) 2',3,5',6, 7- Pentamethoxyflavone (104) (10) 3,3' ,5- Trihydroxy-4' -methoxyflavone 7-O- β-D-glucopyranoside (105)

The structures of new compounds have been elucidated through spectral studies including DV, IR, ElMS, HREIMS, F ABMS, HRF ABMS, and NMR techniques including 1D 1H- and 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY) in addition to chemical transformations. The known compounds have been identified through comparison of their spectral data with those reported in the literature.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
390.25 KB
2 1 Natural Product 1
104.67 KB
3 2 Phytochemical Investigation On Haloxylon Recurvum Bunge Ex Boiss 6
121.35 KB
4 3 Bioxynthesis Of Terpendoids 10
290.23 KB
5 4 Biosynthesis Of Steroids 29
99.02 KB
6 5 Part A Results And Discussion 35
938.19 KB
7 6 Part A Experimental 84
475.23 KB
8 7 Phytochemical Investigation On Silybum Marianum Gaerth 110
322.59 KB
9 8 Part-B Results And Discussion 119
554.06 KB
10 9 Part-B Experimental 152
311.9 KB
11 10 Phytochemical Investigation Onaerva Persica Burn 173
130.11 KB
12 11 Flavonoids 178
383.99 KB
13 12 Part C Results And Discussion 200
308.05 KB
14 13 Part C Experimental
253.15 KB
15 14 References 232
407.65 KB