




S. No. 
Chapter 
Title of the Chapters 
Page 
Size (KB) 





1 
0 
Contents 

217.04 KB 





2 
1 
Oceanography 
1 
579.14 KB 

1.1 
Introduction 
1 

1.2 
Topography 
1 

1.3 
The Parameters Of State Of Sea Water 
5 

1.4 
The Equation Of State Of Water 
11 

1.5 
The Representation Of The Process Of Maxing On The Temperature Salinity (Ts) Diagram 
13 

1.6 
TS Curve Of The Waters Of The Oceans 
20 

1.7 
The Line Integral In The TS Plan 
21 





3 
2 
Hydrodynamic Equation Of The Sea 
21 
573.89 KB 

2.1 
Gravitational Forces 
29 

2.2 
The Continuity Equation 
30 

2.3 
Effects Of Spin 
32 

2.4 
Effects Of Spin 
36 

2.5 
The Coriolis Force 
36 

2.6 
Tidal Force 
38 

2.7 
Total Potential Caused By The Gravity & Rotations 
39 

2.8 
Internal Force In A Viscous Fluid 
40 

2.9 
The Salinity Equation 
41 

2.10 
Waves Dynamics 
42 





4 
3 
Indus Delta 
51 
774.39 KB 

3.1 
Indus River Discharge 
51 

3.2 
Growth Of Indus Delta 
54 

3.3 
Tectonic Activities In Indus Deltaic Region 
53 

3.4 
Geology Of Indus Delta 
54 

3.5 
Sediments 
60 

3.6 
Manā€™s Influence On Sediment Discharge 
70 

3.8 
Future Of Indus River System And Estuary 
72 





5 
4 
Reduction In Indus River Discharge And Its Implication 
74 
193.32 KB 

4.1 
Introduction 
74 

4.2 
Indus River Discharge Pattern 
74 

4.3 
Changes In River Discharge Due To Dams Channel Etc 
75 

4.4 
Mathematical Model, Itā€™s Formulation And Application 
76 

4.5 
Ecological Change 
78 

4.6 
Conclusion 
81 





6 
5 
Numerical Simulation Of A LargeScale Atmospheric And Oceanic Circulation 
83 
366.64 KB 

5.1 
Introduction 
83 

5.2 
A LargeScale Dynamics Of The Atmosphere And Ocean 
83 

5.3 
Integral Laws Of Conservation 
86 

5.4 
The Symmetrized Form Of The Equations Of The Atmosphere Dynamics And The Evolutionary Formulation Of The Problem In The Ocean Dynamics 
92 





7 
6 
Materials In Sea Water 
102 
341.36 KB 

6.1 
Dissolved Materials 
102 

6.2 
The Major Constituents 
103 

6.3 
The Dissolved Gases 
104 

6.4 
The Nutrients 
107 

6.5 
The Trace Elements 
109 

6.6 
Salinity Variations 
111 





8 
7 
Mathematical Model For Evaluating The Mass Of Mangroves Forest Along Coast Line Of Karachi / Indus Delta 
115 
203.51 KB 

7.1 
Introduction 
115 

7.2 
Mathematical Modeling 
117 

7.3 
Results And Discussions 
120 

7.4 
Conclusions 
120 





9 
8 
An Empirical Model To Predict The Tidal Level At The Coast Areas Of Karachi 
121 
124.56 KB 

8.1 
Introduction 
121 

8.2 
Mathematical Modeling 
123 

8.3 
Results And Discussion 
124 

8.4 
Conclusion 
125 





10 
9 
Results 
126 
349.66 KB 

9.1 
Discussion 
128 

9.2 
Conclusions 
133 

9.3 
Recommendations 
137 




