I= BIOECOLOGY AND EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES (PYRETHROID AND ORGANOPHOSPHATE) ON NON-TARGET WILDLIFE SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUPHLYCTIS FROM SINDH AND THEIR EFFECT ON ENZYMES
Pakistan Research Repository Home
 

Title of Thesis
BIOECOLOGY AND EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES (PYRETHROID AND ORGANOPHOSPHATE) ON NON-TARGET WILDLIFE SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUPHLYCTIS FROM SINDH AND THEIR EFFECT ON ENZYMES

Author(s)
Ghazala Yasmeen
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Zoology/ University Karachi
Session
2007
Subject
Zoology
Number of Pages
163
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
bioecology, agricultural pesticides, pyrethroid, organophosphate, wildlife species, genus euphlyctis, sindh, sandaphos, chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, dathrin, enzyme cholinesterase, alkaline phosphatase, skittering frog, euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, ectotherms

Abstract
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of two pesticide group organophosphate (Sandaphos and Chlorpyrifos) and pyrethroid (β-Cypermethrin and Dathrin) on enzyme cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver, kidney and brain tissues of skittering frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis.

It was observed that under the effects of Sandaphos, Chlorpyrifos (organophosphate), β-Cypermethrin and Dathrin (pyrethroid) the enzyme activities were found to be significantly inhibited in liver, kidney and brain of treated frogs.

Frogs treated with 5 and 10% concentration of Sandaphos showed reduced liver, kidney and brain cholinesterase activity. It was decreased up to 10 and 15% (P < 0.048) in liver, 10 and 50% (P < 0.027) in kidney, 55.55 and 66.66% (P < 0.001) in the brain, respectively.

In the case of Chlorpyrifos the effect of 2 and 4% concentration on cholinesterase activity in liver, kidney and brain of E. cyanophlyctis was decreased upto 30.0 and 45.0%(P < 0.001) in liver, 20.0 and 50.0% (P < 0.016) in kidney and 33.33 and 55.55 % (P < 0.001) in the brain, respectively.

Under the effect of 5 and 10% concentration of β-Cypermethrin on cholinesterase activity in liver, kidney and brain of E. cyanophlyctis was found decreased upto 20.0 and 30.0% (P < 0.006) in liver, 30.0 and 40.0% (P < 0.029) in kidney, 33.33 and 44.44% (P < 0.002) in the brain, respectively.

The effect of 0.04 and 0.08% concentrations of Dathrin is to reduce cholinesterase activity in liver, kidney and brain of E. cyanophlyctis by 15 and 45% (P < 0.0(5), 20 and 40% (P < 0.025), 22 and 44% (P < 0.029), respectively

During the study, the effect of two concentrations Le. 5 and 10% ,of Sandaphos (organophosphate) on alkaline Phosphatase activity in liver, kidney and brain of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis was estimated. It was decreased upto 50.0 and 62.50% (P < 0.001) in liver, 16.66 and 33.33% (P < 0.337) in kidney, 11.11 and 33.33% (P < 0.186) in the brain, respectively.

In the case of Chlorpyrifos (organophosphate) the effect of 2 and 4% concentration on alkaline Phosphatase activity in liver, kidney and brain of E. cyanophlyctis was decreased upto 25.0 and 50.0% (P < 0.027) in liver, 33.0 and 50.0% (P < 0.219) in kidney, 22.22 and 44.44% (P<0.231) in the brain, respectively.

Under the effect of 5 and 10% concentration of β-Cypermethrin (pyrethroid) on alkaline Phosphatase activity in liver, kidney and brain of E. cyanophlyctis was found decreased upto 12.5 and 25.0% (P < 0.368) in liver, 16.66 and 33.33% (P < 0.267) in kidney, 22.22 and 55.55 % (P< 0.227) in the brain respectively.

In the case of Dathrin (pyrethroid) the effect of 0.04 and 0.08% concentrations on alkaline Phosphatase activity in liver, kidney and brain of E. cyanophlyctis was found decreased upto 37.50 and 50.0% (P< 0.001) in liver, 16.66 and 50.0% (P < 0.214) in kidney, 44.44 and 55.55% (P < 0.219) in the brain, respectively.

In this study, after 24 hours of the treatment, Sandaphos, Chlorpyrifos, β-Cypermethrin and Dathrin were shown to have decreased the alkaline Phosphatase activity in treated E. cyanophlyctis frog's liver, kidney and brain as compared to control.

In present work, the meteorological factors Le. the temperature, humidity and rainfall in study areas were also recorded to determine the effect of climatic conditions on behaviour of E. cyanophlyctis and its habitat.

In present study, the activity of E. cyanophlyctis was influenced by temperature, which is not surprising as the activity of most ectotherms is influenced accordingly. Levels of activity increased with temperature throughout the study period and activity was limited by the decrease in temperature.

Download Full Thesis
14357.82 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
1749.69 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
1264.78 KB
3 2 Review of literature 14
4225.18 KB
4 3 Materials and methods 49
352.94 KB
5 4 Results 53
3972.23 KB
6 5 Discussion 118
3972.26 KB
7 6 Conclusion 133
218.83 KB
8 7 References 136
2131.68 KB
9 8 Appendix 156
606.91 KB