I= EFFECT OF VARYING RUMINALLY DEGRADABLE TO UNDEGRADABLE PROTEIN RATIO ON MILK PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DAIRY BUFFALOES (BUBALUS BUBALIS)
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Title of Thesis
EFFECT OF VARYING RUMINALLY DEGRADABLE TO UNDEGRADABLE PROTEIN RATIO ON MILK PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DAIRY BUFFALOES (BUBALUS BUBALIS)

Author(s)
Asif Javaid
Institute/University/Department Details
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology/ University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Session
2007
Subject
Animal Nutrition
Number of Pages
122
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
undegradable protein, ruminally degradable protein, milk production, reproductive performance, dairy buffaloes, bubalus bubalis,nili-ravi, buffalo bulls, lactating buffaloes, dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, ovarian activity

Abstract
The present study was conducted to examine the influence of varying ruminally degradable protein (RDP) to undegradable protein (RUP) ratio on milk production and reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes during early lactation. Three trials were conducted, two on cannulated buffalo bulls and one on early lactating buffaloes. In 1st and 2nd trials, four ruminally cannulated Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design to determine the influence of varying level of RDP on dry matter intake (DMI) ruminal characteristics, nutrient digestibility, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and nitrogen (N) balance. Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated. The control (C) diet contained 50 % RDP of crude protein (CP). The medium (MRDP), high (HRDP) and very high (VHRDP) ruminally degradable protein diets had 66,82 and 100 % RDP of CP, respectively. The bulls were fed restricted (at 1.5 % body weight) in 1st, whereas ad libitum in 2nd trial. Increasing dietary RDP level resulted in linear decrease in DMI in buffalo bulls fed ad libitum. A quadratic decrease in ruminal pH with quadratic maxima at 66 % RDP in buffalo bulls fed either restricted or ad libitum was observed with increase in RDP to RUP ratio. Ruminal NH3-N concentrations were increased with increasing the level of dietary RDP in bulls fed either restricted or ad libitum and were comparatively higher in bulls fed ad libitum because of higher RDP intake resulting from increased DMI. In restricted as well as ad libitum trials, the level of dietary RDP had a quadratic effect on total bacterial count with quadratic maxima at 82 % RDP. Similar trend was observed regarding protozoal count in both restricted and lid libitum trials. Linear increase in DM digestibility was observed with increasing dietary RDP level. Crude protein digestibility was higher in bulls fed C and MRDP diets than those fed HRDP and VHRDP diets in restricted trial, whereas, it remained unaltered in ad libitum trial. The NDF digestibility decreased linearly with increasing RDP level. Blood pH remained unaltered across all diets in 1st trial, however, it was higher in bulls fed HRDP and VHRDP than those fed other .diets at 9 and 12 h post feeding in 2nd trial. A linear increase in BUN was noticed due to increasing the level of dietary RDP in both restricted as well as ad libitum trials. The increase in BUN was due to increased ruminal NH3-N concentrations. A positive N balance was observed across all diets and decreased linearly with increasing level of dietary RDP in bulls fed either restricted or ad libitum.

In 3rd trial, twenty four early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes, eight animals in each group, were used in a Randomized Complete Block Design to evaluate the effect of varying RDP: RUP on DMI, nutrient digestibility, N balance, milk yield and its composition, and reproductive performance. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated. The C diet was balanced to contain RDP:RUP of 50:50. The other two diets, medium (MRUP) and low (LRUP) ruminally undegradable protein were formulated to have RDP:RUP of 66:34 and 82: 18, respectively. Increasing RDP to RUP ratio resulted in linear decrease in DMI in early lactating buffaloes. Linear increase in DM digestibility was observed with increasing RDP to RUP ratio. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased linearly with increasing RDP to RUP ratio. Crude protein digestibility and blood pH remained unaltered across all diets with increasing RDP to RUP ratio. A positive N balance in early lactating buffaloes was observed across all diets and decreased linearly with increasing RDP to RUP ratio. Linear decrease in milk yield, milk protein and fat yields was observed with increasing RDP to RUP ratio. Percentage of fat, total solids, solid not fat and lactose remained unaltered across all diets. Blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen decreased with increasing RDP to RUP ratio. Days open in lactating buffaloes did not change with change in RDP to RUP ratio. Conception rate was higher in buffaloes fed low RDP to RUP ratio.

In conclusion, diet containing 50:50 RDP:RUP increased DMI, milk yield and improved reproductive performance and the positive effect of this ratio on milk yield and reproductive performance was due to increased feed intake and reduced BUN concentration.

Download Full Thesis
1727.33 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
115.35 KB
2 1 Introduction 3
49.7 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 6
540.97 KB
  2.1 Dry Matter Intake 6
  2.2 Ruminal Nh 3 -N 8
  2.3 Microbial Growth And Count 10
  2.4 Ruminal pH 12
  2.5 Digestibility 13
  2.6 Nitrogen Balance 15
  2.7 Milk Yield 16
  2.8 Milk Composition 18
  2.9 Blood pH 19
  2.10 Blood Urea Nitrogen And Milk Urea Nitrogen 20
  2.11 Reproductive Performance 23
  2.12 Ovarian Activity 24
  2.13 Days Open 25
  2.14 Conception Rate 27
  2.15 References
4 3 Ruminal Characteristics, Blood Urea Nitrogen And Nitrogen Balance In Nili-Ravi Buffalo Bulls Fed Varying Level Of RDP On Restricted Feeding Regime 43
276.38 KB
  3.1 Introduction 43
  3.2 Materials And Methods 44
  3.3 Results And Discussion 46
  3.5 References 59
5 4 Influences Of Varying Ruminally Degradable To Undegradable Protein Ratios On Ruminal Characteristics , Blood pH, Blood Nitrogen And Nitrogen Balance In Nili-Ravi Buffalo Bulls Fed At Ad Libitum 64
342.56 KB
  4.1 Introduction 64
  4.2 Materials And Methods 65
  4.3 Results And Discussion 69
  4.5 References 83
6 5 Effect Of Varying Ruminally Degradable To Undegradable Protein Ratios In Nutrients Intake, Milk Production, Milk Composition, Blood pH, Blood Urea Nitrogen , Nitrogen Balance And Reproductive Performance In Early Lactating Nili-Ravi Buffaloes 89
521.42 KB
  5.1 Introduction 89
  5.2 Materials And Methods 90
  5.3 Results And Discussion 93
  5.5 References 110
7 6 Summary 120
36.92 KB