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Title of Thesis

Nafeesa Zahid
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Botany/ Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
vegetation structure, moist temperate rangelands, pir chinasi hills, muzaffarabad, poaceae, asteraceae, lamiaceae, rosaceae, pteridaceae, polygonaceae, leguminosae, hemicryptophytes, therophytes, rangeland resources, rangeland biomass, herbaceous biomass

Vegetation structure and diversity of moist-temperate rangelands of Pir-Chinasi hills were analyzed in two consecutive years i.e 2004 and 2005. There were 190 species of 59 families. Based on the number of species, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Pteridaceae, Polygonaceae and Leguminosae were the most prevailing families. Biological spectrum showed that hemicryptophytes and therophytes were the dominant life-form classes in both the seasons (spring and monsoon), while the leaf size spectrum indicated the prevalence of microphylls and nanophylls. The growing season commences at the beginning of May and conclude in November. There were two flowering seasons Le. spring and monsoon. About 87 % (166 spp.) plants flowered during the first spell i.e. from May to August, while 13 % (24 spp.) plants had got flowering during second spell that lasted from September to November. Few species exhibited flowering through out the growing seasons. The studies indicated that plants are mostly used for fodder (46.82 %), medicinal (27.77%), vegetable/edible fruits (4.36%), timber wood (3.17%), fuel wood (6.74%), poisonous (5.55%), tanning/dying species (2.77%), resin yielding (1.19%), and herbal tea (1.58%).

There were twenty six plant communities during spring and monsoon. However on the basis of cluster analysis and Detrended correspondence analysis, the plant communities were categorized into three major groups: woodland subtropical broad leaved group, temperate mixed coniferous group, and alpine group. The soil texture was mostly varied from heavy loam to clay loam in different associations with basic pH. The organic matter ranged from 3.3 to 6.7 %, in different associations. The electrical conductivity was in between .02 to 1.48 ds/m, phosphorus from 5 to 25 ppm potassium ranged from 100 to 500 ppm. The availability of fodder species differed from May to November. There were 105 palatable species. Out of which 56 were highly palatable while 49 were just palatable species. It was seen that in 44 species shoot! whole plant were used, in 56 species foliage/leaves were used, in 13 species fruits were used and in 19 species floral parts were used. Fluctuations in rainfall pattern influenced plants productivity in both the years Le. 2004 and 2005. The total average biomass for both the years was (3969.5 Kg/h). The month of July and August were the most productive having 810.5 Kg/h and 939 Kg/h respectively. The biomass gradually increased from May to August (2927 Kg/h) and progressively decreasing trend was noted till November (1042.5 Kg/h). The investigated range is less productive and needs proper management and rehabilitation through ecological approaches. This would be possible with the participation of local people and Government to make the resource sustainable. There is a need that Government should give complete protection to this rangeland for at least ten years. There is a need to provide alternate resource of energy so as to lessen the burden on rangeland resources. It is recommended that low stocking rate during growing seasons and moderate stocking rate during spring by proper livestock management technique improve range biomass, species diversity and rangeland carrying capacity.

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27340.8 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
1528.58 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
1691.71 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 13
2117.47 KB
  2.1 Vegetation / Phytosociology 13
  2.2 Rangeland Biomass 18
  2.3 Palatability 26
4 3 Materials And Methods 31
1365.21 KB
  3.1 Locations 31
  3.2 General Survey 31
  3.3 Floristic Composition 31
  3.4 Ecological Characteristics 33
  3.5 Leaf Size Spectra 34
  3.6 Phytosociology 35
  3.7 Frequency 35
  3.8 Density 37
  3.9 Cover 37
  3.10 Community Similarity 38
  3.11 Index Of Diversity 38
  3.12 Maturity Index 39
  3.13 Regeneration Capacity 40
  3.14 Degree Of Homogeneity 40
  3.15 Edaphology 41
  3.16 Measurement Of Forage Productivity 43
  3.17 Degree Of Palatability 44
  3.18 Vegetation Classification And Ordination 46
5 4 Results And Discussion 47
12924.47 KB
  4.1 Floristic Composition 47
  4.2 Phenological Behavior 47
  4.3 Economic Use Of Classification 55
  4.4 Life Form 57
  4.5 Leaf Spectra 57
  4.6 Phytosociology 57
  4.7 Ordination And Classification 81
  4.8 Similarity (IS) And Dissimilarity (ID) Indices 86
  4.9 The Relationships Of Seasons With Index Of Diversity And Its Component 88
  4.10 Regenerating Capacity 91
  4.11 Degree Of Homogeneity 91
  4.12 Herbaceous Biomass 96
  4.13 Degree Of Palatability 102
6 5 Summary 153
7980.4 KB
  5.1 Literature Cited 155