Pakistan Research Repository Home

Title of Thesis

Shamaraz Firdous
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Physics & Applied Mathematics/ Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences Islamabad
Laser Physics
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
laser tissue interaction, wave propagation, mueller matrix polarimetry, mueller matrix optical polarimetry, tissues lesions, malignant tissues, turbid medium, optical imaging, light mater interaction, polarization elements

In this research work we have characterized the bio-materials with Mueller matrix optical polarimetry. The images and matrix elements with Mueller calculus provides a comprehensive information of samples due to which it is possible to combine all the necessary parameters for describing a beam of light into a single image. The resultant describing the light beam is simply the four-parameter Stokes vector and determined by measuring a flux transmitted through a set of polarization optics, polarization generating optics provide linear and circular polarized light to sample and polarization analyzing optics collect polarized output light from sample to detecting devices. The characteristic Mueller matrix in all experiments contains 16 elements, having total 49 intensity measurements at different polarization states. In practice, all 16 elements may not be independent. Only seven out of sixteen Mueller matrix elements are independent and others depending on the symmetry and certain properties of the optical medium.

The potential of the developed polarimetric system for the detection of normal and malignant tissues lesions lies in its ability to reject deeply scattered light at different depths, based on the incident and scattered polarizations within the tissue. In addition, the ability to fully characterize the polarization properties of the sample under investigation can provide useful information in terms of the morphological structure differences present between normal and cancerous tissue. These changes help to characterize and distinguish between tissue types.

The Stokes Mueller polarization images of transmitted intensity along with degree of polarization provides fingerprint of the turbid medium. Careful analysis of images and degree of polarization, differentiation of scatterer in term of its concentration, size, shape and orientation is possible. The linear polarization preservation is dominant over circular due to scatterer density rather then size of the particle in medium. We have seen that linearly and circularly polarized light propagates differently for turbid samples. we have indicated the structural features in turbid medium that influence the degree of polarization and the importance of these structures on polarized light propagation. Using the experimental data we have compared the intensities of the two orthogonal polarized components and have found that the average difference is negligibly small. Therefore within a less than 5% average error we can use the semi-isotropic scattering to simplify our Mueller matrix and have only five unknown coefficients. We applied our characterization study for simulation of biomaterial and found useful results.

In addition, the ability to fully characterize the polarization properties under investigation, the information of the morphological structure normal and cancerous tissue is achieved. These changes can be of the sample differences of used to help characterize and distinguish between tissue types. Furthermore, the ability to acquire such measurements in a minimal time frame gives promise for the future application of such a system to differentiate between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue. In this study different tissue-like materials (water, vegetable oil, milk, and other intralipid phantoms), different types of animal tissue in vitro have been investigated with the aim of correlating the dominant spectral features. Tissues that contain water are clearly distinguishable from fatty tissue on account of the absorption bands for water. The transmission differences are sufficiently clear to permit characterization of turbid medium and biological tissues.

The Stokes -Mueller matrix polarimetric system, due to its simplicity and versatility, this may prove to be an ideal system for structural analysis of turbid sample and soft tissues. The Stokes- Mueller matrix polarimetry is a major step forward towards bio-material characterization, especially malignant tissues and turbid medium.

Download Full Thesis
2714.33 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
300.63 KB
2 1 Polarized Light And Optical Imaging 1
235.47 KB
  1.1 Light Mater Interaction 1
  1.2 Polarization 4
  1.3 Optical Properties Of Matter And Biological Tissues 8
  1.4 Optical Imaging Of Turbid And Biological Materials 12
3 2 Optics Calculus And Mueller Matrix Polarimetry 18
304.49 KB
  2.1 Stokes Vector Calculus 20
  2.2 Jones Calculus 26
  2.3 Mueller Matrix 29
  2.4 Mueller Matrix Of A Train 32
  2.5 Derivation Of Mueller Matrix For Polarizer 33
  2.6 General Mueller Matrix For Retarder 34
  2.7 Mueller Matrix For Degree Of Polarization 35
4 3 Materials And Methods 37
222.15 KB
  3.1 Mueller Matrix Polarimenters 37
  3.2 Experimental Setup For Mueller Matrix Imaging System 39
  3.3 Common Defects Of Polarization Elements 50
5 4 Stokes Vector Modeling Of Turbid Medium And Biological Tissues 53
304.85 KB
  4.1 Polarimetric System For Spatially Resolved Stokes Vector Imaging Of Biological Turbid Samples 53
  4.2 Stokes Polarimetry For The Characterization Of Bio-Materials Using Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders 59
6 5 Mueller Matrix Polarimetry For Optical Materials Characterization 73
400.46 KB
  5.1 Optical Imaging Of Turbid Medium Through Scattering Of Polarized Light For Diagnostic And Treatment Of Malignant Diseases 73
  5.2 Theoretical Results For Mueller Matrix Polarimetry 80
  5.3 Mueller Matrix Polarimeter For The Characterization Of Optical Materials 91
7 6 Mueller Matrix Polarization Imaging 104
603.68 KB
  6.1 Mueller Matrix Polarimetry : Characterization Of Turbid Medium Through Polarization Discrimination 104
  6.2 Transmission And Scattering Matrix Of Polarization Imaging For Biological Turbid Medium 123
8 7 Mueller Matrix Polarimetric Applications 128
363.44 KB
  7.1 Measurement Of The Optical Properties Of Breast Tissues In Vitro Using Mueller Matrix Polarimetry 130
  7.2 The Optical Parameters Measurement For Skin Tissue Imaging And Auto-Florescence In Vitro 137
  7.3 Development Of Glucose Monitoring System With Mueller Matrix Polarimetry 145
9 8 Summary And Future Recommendations 155
210.72 KB
  8.1 Afterwards 161
  8.2 References 162