I= COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CURRICULA, TEACHING METHODOLOGY AND EXAMINATION SYSTEM OF GCE (A-LEVEL) AND F.SC. LEVEL IN BASIC SCIENCES
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Title of Thesis
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CURRICULA, TEACHING METHODOLOGY AND EXAMINATION SYSTEM OF GCE (A-LEVEL) AND F.SC. LEVEL IN BASIC SCIENCES

Author(s)
Muhammad Naeem Ullah
Institute/University/Department Details
University Institute of Education and Research/ University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi
Session
2007
Subject
Education
Number of Pages
182
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
curricula, teaching methodology, examination system, gce, a-level, f.sc. level, basic sciences, chemistry, laboratory instruction, chemistry

Abstract
Modern age is an era of science and technology. This development and advancement in science has totally transformed the life. Science education has to be given top priority, if we are to keep pace with the developed countries. Curriculum and teaching learning process determine the quality of education. Pakistan is lagging behind in the field of education, particularly in the field of science education. Study was comparative in nature and was aimed at ascertaining the effectiveness of curriculum, teaching and examination system of GCE A-level and F.Sc. level in basic sciences (chemistry). The major objectives of the study were: (1) to compare the policy objectives of basic sciences (chemistry) curriculum at intermediate and GCE A-level; (2) to compare chemistry curriculum at intermediate and GCE A-level with special reference to objectives; content; teaching methodology; evaluation; (3) to critically review the teaching methodology of intermediate and GCE A-level in basic sciences (chemistry); (4) to undertake the comparative review of examination systems of intermediate and GCE A-level in basic sciences (chemistry); and (5) to suggest measures for the improvement of intermediate science education programme and GCE A-level.

All the experts working in ministry of education Islamabad, curriculum bureaus in the provinces, teachers teaching chemistry at intermediate (F.Sc.) level and students studying chemistry at intermediate level along with experts, teachers and students of GCE A-level in all the institutions offering A-level/F.Sc. programmes in Pakistan constituted the population of the study.

Forty experts (20 from each system) from the Curriculum Wing Islamabad and Provincial Curriculum Centers, Textbook Boards, Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education along with Principals, Edexcel, British Council, Subject Specialists (A-level system) were randomly selected.

Seventy-five institutions, 50 institutions offering F.Sc. and 25 institutions offering A-level were randomly selected as sample of the study from all over Pakistan. Three chemistry teachers from each institution were also included in the sample. The sample also included ten chemistry students from each sampled institution.

Three questionnaires (one each for curriculum experts, teachers and the students) were developed and validated through pilot testing and administered to the sample for collection of data. Researcher personally visited respondents and thus 100% data were collected. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed by using percentage and two-way chi square.

The experts of both the systems opined that the objectives of chemistry were well defined and clear but opinion of the teachers of both the systems differed significantly. According to the teachers of F.Sc. Programme the objectives of chemistry were not well defined and clear whereas the teachers of A-level expressed that objectives of chemistry were well defined and clear. Majority of the teachers of Pakistani system were found dissatisfied with the present scheme of studies being offered at higher secondary level whereas majority of the teachers of A-level expressed their satisfaction on the scheme of studies of A-level.

According to the teachers of F.Sc. Programme, objectives of chemistry were not well defined and clear. Curriculum be over hauled and modified according to the needs and requirements of 21st century. Science education plays a pivotal role in the development of a country therefore, the education system be same in all respect to bring it at par with the needs of international level.

Download Full Thesis
4376.98 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
271.31 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
88.58 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 6
1192.59 KB
  2.1 Introduction 6
  2.2 Concept Of Science 7
  2.3 Importance Of Chemistry As A Discipline 9
  2.4 Introduction To Intermediate ( F.Sc . Level) And GCE (A-Level) Systems 13
  2.5 Sciences Education In The Light Of Education Polices 20
  2.6 Curriculum Development Process 29
  2.7 Development Of Intermediate And A-Level 30
  2.8 Science Teaching 44
  2.9 Teaching-Learning Process In Chemistry (A-Level ) 50
  2.10 Experiment And Laboratory Instruction 56
  2.11 Examination System 60
  2.12 Difference Between Intermediate ( F.Sc ) And A Level Education Systems 72
  2.13 Research In Basic Science (Chemistry ) 75
4 3 Research Methodology 84
173.93 KB
  3.1 Population 84
  3.2 Sample 85
  3.3 Delimitation Of The Study 87
  3.4 Research Instruments 87
  3.5 Data Collection 88
  3.6 Analysis 89
5 4 Results And Discussion 92
2151.6 KB
  4.1 Discussion 146
6 5 Summary 154
723.17 KB
  5.1 Conclusions 156
  5.2 Recommendations 161
  5.3 Literature Cited 165
  5.4 Appendices 174