I= TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE TRIBE CARDUEAE FROM PAKISTAN WITH EMPHASIS ON CONSERVATION STATUS AND ETHONBOTANICAL ASPECT
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Title of Thesis
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE TRIBE CARDUEAE FROM PAKISTAN WITH EMPHASIS ON CONSERVATION STATUS AND ETHONBOTANICAL ASPECT

Author(s)
Tanweer Akhtar
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Biological Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Session
2005
Subject
Biological Sciences
Number of Pages
473
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
silybum, echinops, saussurea, cousinia, tricholepis, cirsium, carduus, saussurea minimerga, echinops echinatus, carthamus tinctorius, c. lanatus, cytolo, tribe cardueae, echninopsidinae, echinops, acantholepis, carlineae, tribe carduinae, jurinea cass, outreya, carduusl, olgaea, cirs, silybum, cynara l, rhaponticum, acroptilon, amberboa, oligochaeta, crupina, volutaria, ethnobotany

Abstract
Very little research has been conducted in Pakistan on Asteraceae. Generic and specific information are lacking on this family. The present research was carried out within the scope of Pakistan. The current venture is two-fold; first, it describes the genera and species of this tribe taxonomic ally, historical reviews and distribution and second indicating the biodiversity of the tribe with particular emphasis on ethnobotanical uses and conservation status. For this aspect collection of species, their preservation and communication with local communities offered information on the tribal biodiversity providing the extensive list of genera and species belonging to this tribe. It includes 34 genera and 207 species. Description of two hundred and seven species have been provided with accurate typification and delimiting them by the keys of sections, genera and species. 60 species are new additions to the flora of Pakistan and seven new species belonging to Silybum, Echinops, Saussurea, Cousinia, Tricholepis, Cirsium and Carduus have been described as an example Saussurea minimerga Akhtar & Khan. Distributional maps have been provided. Distributional pattern of the genera in Pakistan is represented in separate chapter, dividing them in important phytogeographical elements. The tribe includes the 62% endemic species and 20% are wide-spread species. The species have been reported from only one locality is considered as endemic and rare and endangered species in our area. Center of endemism is Chitral, Karakorum, Baluchistan and Azad Kashmir. The species are distributed within the altitudinal range of 800-4000m and above. These species were further explored for their ethnobotanical uses by communicating the tribal communities from the rural area. It is recorded that 27 plant species of this tribe were extensively used by the native communities. These are used directly for curing of 70 diseases. These are important as food and brewages also. Ethnobotanically important plant species are Echinops echinatus, Carthamus tinctorius, C. lanatus, Silybum marianum, Saussurea and Dolomiea. For the evaluation of conservation status of the tribe, I have used the distributional data of seven herbaria and the data of my 30 collection trips to different area during fourteen years. Threatened species have been identified by dividing the species into three categories. Category (C) have been used for 16 wide spread species and category (D) have been used for 116 endemic species. 188 species are critically endangered (Cr), 55 species are endangered (EN), 28 species are vulnerable (Vu), 103 species are uniregionic and 19 species are biregionic. Irano-Turanean elements predominate, but MeditelTanean penetrations are common with sino-Japanese elements in temperate and alpine zones of Northern area and Azad Kashmir. Concerted efforts are required to broaden our understanding of dynamics of floral values and to check the species dec1ine of this tribe in our area, conservation of endangered species is implementary and there is need to coordinate much more closely to plan and cover poorly collected areas and concentrate on rare species.

Download Full Thesis
7945.62 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
602.09 KB
2 1 General Introduction 1
332.94 KB
  1.1 History of the project 1
  1.2 History of Pakistan 2
  1.3 Vegetation and Physical features of Pakistan 4
  1.4 Historical review of the tribe 8
  1.5 Taxonomic Interrelationship 16
  1.6 Gerlera1 morphology 17
  1.7 Summary of the achievements 21
3 2 Material and Methods 24
50.65 KB
4 3 Cytolo 28
131.63 KB
5 4 Tribe Cardueae 34
88.95 KB
  4.1 Taxonomic Description 34
  4.2 Key- to the Gerlera 35
6 5 Sub tribe Echninopsidinae 40
517.74 KB
  5.1 Echinops 40
  5.2 Historical Review 41
  5.3 Discussion 41
  5.4 Distribution 42
  5.5 Results 44
  5.6 Keys to the Section 44
  5.7 Keys to the Species 44
  5.8 Description of the Species 47
7 6 Acantholepis 64
35.4 KB
  6.1 General Description 64
8 7 Sub tribe Carlineae 66
218.18 KB
  7.1 Description and Distribution 66
  7.2 Thevonatia 66
  7.3 Xeranthemum 67
  7.4 Cardinia 70
  7.5 StaeheJina 72
  7.6 Carlina 73
  7.7 Atractytis 75
9 8 Sub Tribe Carduinae 78
1709.51 KB
  8.1 Arctium 78
  8.2 Ceosinia 81
  8.3 General Morphology 81
  8.4 Literature Review 82
  8.5 Karyology 84
  8.6 Distribution of Cousirlia 85
  8.7 Discussion 94
  8.8 Results 86
  8.9 Key to the Section 94
  8.10 Key to the Species 96
  8.11 Description of the Species 102
  155 Onopordon
 
  8.13 Historica1 Review 155
  8.14 Description of the Species 157
10 9 Saussurea DC 163
1517.79 KB
  9.1 Historica1 Review 164
  9.2 Results and Discussion 166
  9.3 Distribution 168
  9.4 Ecology and Phytogeograhpy 168
  9.5 Endrmism 169
  9.6 Keys to the Subgenera 176
  9.7 Keys to the Species 178
  9.8 Description of the Species 184
11 10 Jurinea Cass 245
258.55 KB
  10.1 Keys to the Species 247
  10.2 Description of the Species 248
  10.3 Dolomieae 257
  10.4 Key to the Species 257
  10.5 Description of the Species 257
12 11 Outreya 261
99.66 KB
  11.1 Description of the Genera 261
  11.2 Description of the Species 263
  11.3 Aegopordon 263
  11.4 Description of the Genera 264
  11.5 Description of the species 265
  11.4 Hyalochaete 265
  11.5 Description of the Genera 265
  11.6 Description of the Species 265
13 12 Carduusl 267
175.73 KB
  12.1 Historical Review 268
  12.2 Discussion 269
  12.3 Keys to the Species 271
  12.4 Description of the Species 272
14 13 Olgaea 279
23.62 KB
  13.1 Description of the Species 279
15 14 Cirs 280
605.39 KB
  14.1 Historical Review 280
  14.2 Cytology 281
  14.3 Chemotaxonomy 282
  14.4 Keys to the sections 282
  14.5 Keys to the species 286
  14.6 Description of the species 289
16 15 Silybum 310
106.01 KB
  15 .1 Historical Review 310
  15.2 Cyotology 312
  15.3 Chemotaxonomy 312
  15.4 Description of the Species 313
17 16 Cynara L 316
42.74 KB
18 17 Sub tribe Centuarineae 318
104.11 KB
  17 .1 Key to the species 318
  17.2 Description of the species 318
19 18 Rhaponticum 322
25.24 KB
  18. 1 Description of the species 322
20 19 Tricholepis 323
429.89 KB
  19.1 Key to the species 323
  19.2 Description of the species 325
  19.3 Discussion 338
21 20 Acroptilon 340
320.95 KB
  20.1 Description of the Species 340
  20.2 Zoegea 342
  20.3 Key to the Species 342
  20.4 Description of the Species 342
  20.5 Schisch1rinia 346
  20.6 Description of the Species 346
  20.7 Cnicus 347
  20.8 Historical Review 347
  20.9 Description of the Species 348
  20.10 Carthamus 350
  20.11 Key to the Species 350
  20.12 Description of the Species 351
22 21 Amberboa 356
73.15 KB
  21.1 Keys to the Species 356
  21.2 Description of the Species 365
23 22 Oligochaeta 360
43.38 KB
  22 .1 Keys to the Species 360
  22.2 Description of the Species 360
24 23 Crupina 364
37.93 KB
  23.1 Keys to the species 364
  23.2 Description of the species 365
25 24 Volutaria 366
27.16 KB
  24.1 Description of the Species 366
26 25 Ethnobotany 367
69.89 KB
  25.1 Food and Flavoring Uses 368
  25.2 Medicinal Uses 369
27 26 Distribution and Conservation Status of the Tribe Cardueae 373
428.79 KB
28 27 Concludingdiscussion 388
439.83 KB
  27.1 Overview Of The Tribe 393
  27.2 Summary Of The Taxonomic Changes Proposed 395
  27.3 Ethnobotanical Findings Of Particular Interest 404
  27.4 Priorities For Conservation And Future Research 407
  27.5 Selected References 410
  27.6 Index 411