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Title of Thesis

Sheikh Saeed Ahmad
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Biological Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Environmental Biology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
motorway, m-2, edaphic variables, na, pb, zn, roadside verges, roadside vegetation, roadside soils

A survey of motorway (M-2) roadside vegetation and soils was undertaken. The floristic data were analyzed by the TWINSPAN and DECORANA, computer programs in order to classify and provide baseline information about the study area. Two major and sixteen sub-communities were recognized along 358 km long motorway.

Among the various edaphic variables studied, the amount of organic matter and macronutrients were present in moderate range whereas the heavy metals showed a slightly higher level and showed a significant variation in their concentration between border and verge zone. The relationship between the plant communities and different edaphic factors were determined by CANOCO analysis. The most important edaphic factors influencing the roadside vegetation were found to be Na, Pb and Zn.

In order to evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of motorway (M-2) construction on the people living around motorway, a survey was conducted. Result portrays both positive and negative impacts on the lives of the people living around study area. As they had to travel greater distance to reach their agricultural land, access to big cities made difficult and carriage of goods to markets was made more difficult due to provision of smaller sized underpasses at longer distances. Generally the construction of motorway (M-2) has imposed more difficulties for the people living in the near vicinities both socially and economically.

The study also provides basic information for the implementation of conservation oriented planning and management to preserve and improve the road verges of M-2.

Download Full Thesis
3484.12 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents 0
182.23 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
173.82 KB
  1.1 History Of Roads 1
  1.2 Roadside Verges 4
  1.3 Re-Vegetation And Management Of Roadside Verges 9
  1.4 Aims Of Study 10
3 2 The Study Area 11
352.54 KB
  2.1 Geography 11
  2.2 Geology 11
  2.3 Climate 16
  2.4 Soils 20
  2.5 Traffic Data 22
4 3 Materials And Methods 24
149.38 KB
  3.1 Selection Of Sites 24
  3.2 Zonation Of Road Verges 25
  3.3 Plant Data Collection 25
  3.4 Collection Of Soil Samples 27
  3.5 Physical Analysis Of Soil 28
  3.6 Chemical Analyses Of Soil 28
  3.7 Preliminary Analyses Of Soil And Vegetation 30
  3.8 Multivariate Analysis 32
  3.9 Statistical Analysis 34
5 4 Results (Vegetation And Soil ) 35
1635.94 KB
  4.1 Vegetation Profile Of M-2 35
  4.2 Roadside Soil 74
6 5 Roadside Vegetation And Environmental Variables 110
337.92 KB
  5.1 Introduction And Niethodology 110
  5.2 Results And Discussion 111
  5.3 Ordination Of Plant Species 113
  5.4 Ordination Of Quadrats 118
  5.5 Roadside Major Plant Communities And Environmental Variables 119
  5.6 Region-Wise Canonical Correspondence Analyses 122
  5.7 Conclusion 131
7 6 Social Aspects 132
222.49 KB
  6.1 Introduction 132
  6.2 Methods 133
  6.3 Analyses The Result 135
  6.4 Discussion 141
8 7 General Discussion And Recommendations 147
666.83 KB
  7.1 General Structure Of Roadside Vegetation 147
  7.2 Roadside Plant Communities 149
  7.3 Roadside Soils 150
  7.4 Roadside Vegetation And Environmental Factors 150
  7.5 Social Impacts Of M-2 152
  7.6 How Far The Study Has Been Successful In Accomplishing The Aims Of The Project 152
  7.7 Suggestions For Further Extension Of The Project 154
  7.8 Bibliography 155
  7.9 Annexes 161