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Title of Thesis

Syed Islam Shah
Institute/University/Department Details
National Institute of Pakistan Studies/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Pakistan Studies
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
socio-economic development, tribal areas, mohmand agency, socio-economic conditions, british frontier policy, durand line agreement, tribesmen, fata, jirga, frontier crimes regulation

The subject of this dissertation is the €œSocio Economic Development in the Tribal Areas: A Case study of Mohmand Agency 1975-85€. The thesis is the in-depth study of the Tribal Areas in regard to its socio-economic conditions, resources, facilities, needs and problems, in various sectors, including Mohmand Agency, to which, a special reference has been made.

The study is based upon library and field research and survey findings. The library research was hampered by a dearth of materials concerning specifically to the present social and economic development of the Tribal Areas. There are a few books which are helpful to the extent that they contain description of the landscape, the people, specific personalities and incidents and the economy, at a particular time and place. To fill this gap, efforts were made to collect up-to-date data and information from Government publications and official Government documents and files concerned with the development activities in the Tribal Areas.

The introduction deals with the research mythology, adopted to collect necessary data and information, primarily from field surveys and documentary sources, including primary and secondary sources.

The first chapter relates to the physical, social and cultural characteristics of the Mohmand Agency, to which, special reference has been made in the study.

The second chapter discusses the administrative system of the Tribal Areas during the British rule including British Frontier Policy, Durand Line Agreement and the formation of the NWF Province. A special reference has also been made to the reasons for the hostile attitude of the tribesmen towards British Policy of social and economic reforms.

The third chapter describes the structure, composition and administrative system of the Tribal Areas after the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. The salient features of this chapter are, the incorporation of the Tribal Areas in Pakistan, their status as "special Areas" established by the 1956 constitution and their composition and constitutional structure under the 1973 constitution. An important point of this chapter is, a brief review of the development expenditures in FATA since independence. Descriptive statistics as well as tables are used to summarize the financial allocations made in various sectors of the Tribal Economy between the period 1970 to 1990.

Chapters IV, V and VI, analyze the economic resources, potentials and various programmes initiated by the Government for the development of FATA with special reference to the Mohmand Agency.

The fourth chapter reviews the development of physical infrastructure, specially the development of the means of transport and communication, marketing infrastructure, financial institutions, storage facilities, water resources and power sector.

The central objective of the fifth chapter is to assess the resource structure of the important sectors of the economy. These include agriculture land-use and production of various crops in the region. This chapter also highlights the contribution of the Government and its development strategy to increase the efficiency of the commodity producing sectors, including land development programme, development of forest and live stock production, mineral resources and industries in the region.

The sixth chapter examines infrastructure such as educational colleges), health facilities and their constraints. the development of social institutions (schools and performance, efficiency and Though the system of Tribal administration has changed but little, since the establishment of Pakistan. The Government still pays allowances to the Tribal Maliks and runs the administration through Jirga and Frontier crimes Regulation. After independence all the colonial approaches and tactics were discarded and the Government adopted a policy of economic absorption I from which tangible results occurred. It attracted the majority of tribesmen to participate in the affairs of their state and were soon able to achieve prominent positions in both the private and public sectors. Increased economic activity by the Government, signifies the Government's perception to develop these areas. The central objective of this study is, therefore, to measure these contributions

In fact, the Tribal Areas have come to serve as a huge experiment station for development projects sponsored by the Government of Pakistan. Therefore attention should be focused on these activities to enable the sponsor agencies to ensure successes, prevent reoccurrences of failures, and to give hope and encouragement to the people of the Tribal Areas. The development of the present low resource structure together with the need for political and socio-economic uplift, make it essential, that every effort be made to improve the living conditions of the people in the Tribal Areas.

With these ideas in mind, attention has been paid to the Government's plans and projects for increasing the resource base and improving the living conditions of the tribesmen. The .study is organized according to the above major topics, including a brief summary and analysis of the findings in the conclusion.

In writing about an area such as FATA, there are a number of terms and names/as well as abbreviations which are more expressive and concise than any English equivalent. And there are some local terms, for which there is no single English counterpart. Several such abbreviations and local terms have been used in this study. For easy reference, a list of abbreviations and a glossary of the terms are included. The appendices contain substantial amount of supportive material and additional information regarding the Tribal Areas.

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5701.57 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
237.29 KB
2 1 Mohmand Agency : Main Characteristics 12
508.2 KB
3 2 The Tribal Areas During The British Rule (1849-1947) 47
759.73 KB
4 3 Administration Of The Tribal Areas After Independence 69
354.91 KB
5 4 Development Of Physical Infrastructure 109
698.14 KB
6 5 Development Of Commodity Producing Sectors 147
768.76 KB
7 6 Development Of Social Infrastructure 215
811.23 KB
  6.1 Conclusion 279
  6.2 Appendices 293
  6.3 Glossary 318
  6.4 Bibliography 321