I= CONSERVATION OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE FOUND IN MOIST TEMPERATE HIMALAYAS PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
CONSERVATION OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE FOUND IN MOIST TEMPERATE HIMALAYAS PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Muhammad Ibrar
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Biological Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Session
2003
Subject
Biological Sciences
Number of Pages
163
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
medicinal plants, himalayas, juglans regia, taxus wallichiana, berberis lycium, asparagus adscendens, atropa acuminata, colchicum luteum, dioscorea deltoidea, podophyllum hexandrum, rheum australe, saussurea costus, valeriana jatamansi, carum copticum, nigella sativa

Abstract
The moist temperate Himalayas, as one of the major ecological zone of Pakistan, deserves specific attention to the conservation of environment and the sustainable development of natural resources. During the last hundred years, the area has been subjected to major structural changes leading to a decrease of about fifty per cent of the potential forest area. The decrease in forest cover, combined with major changes in community structure has been responsible for the decline of indigenous medicinal plants resources and their traditional knowledge also. Ayubia National Park has been identified as one of the priority area to be focused for medicinal plant conservation.

The study was aimed to analyze traditional knowledge including local names, general distribution, flowering period, part used, medicinal and other uses, market values and taxonomic diversity of the medicinal plant of the area. Traditional knowledge about 117 indigenous medicinal plants (including 8 cultivated ones) have been collected from 140 informants. Women followed by children have been identified as the principle gatherers of medicinal plants. About 44 species were found to be market oriented. The field surveys were conducted by adopting predefined questionnaires through guided and transect walks. The market oriented indigenous species have been subjected through mCN criterion for evaluation of their conservation status. According to this criterion, eleven species including two trees (Juglans regia, Taxus wallichiana), one shrub (Berberis lycium) and eight herbaceous species (Asparagus adscendens, Atropa acuminata, Colchicum luteum, Dioscorea deltoidea, Podophyllum hexandrum, Rheum australe, Saussurea costus and Valeriana jatamansi) have been found as endangered. Ex situ cultivation trials have been conducted on all of the endangered herbaceous species. Two exotic species (Carum copticum and Nigella sativa) have been trailed as crops substitute by involving local communities in the low land Himalayas through demonstration plots.

It has been concluded that in up land Himalayas where availability of cultivated land is quite less, the establishment of botanical gardens, home gardens or kitchen gardens may be the best ex situ conservation strategy, which can be adopted for sustainable utilization of medicinal plants. While clearly defined land tenure system and community participation in park management will be the best in situ conservation measure for adoptation. Medicinal plants as crop substitute can bring better results in low land Himalayas.

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2804.23 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
146.44 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
384.43 KB
  1.1 Mountainous Regions Of Pakistan 1
  1.2 Moist Temperate Himalayas 4
  1.4 Protected Areas 9
  1.5 Ayubia National Park (The Focal Area Of Study ) 11
  1.6 Objectives Of The Present Study 22
3 2 Review Of Literature 23
244.9 KB
  2.1 Conservation As Tradition 23
  2.2 Conservation Of Traditional Knowledge 23
  2.3 Conservation Criteria 26
  2.4 Conservation Status Of Medicinal Plants 27
  2.5 Trade Of Medicinal Plants 29
  2.6 In Situ Conservation 30
  2.7 Ex Situ Conservation 31
  2.8 In-Vitro Conservation 32
  2.9 Community Based Conservation 33
  2.10 Conservation Through Plant Part Substitution 34
  2.11 Specific Review On Selected Indigenous Medicinal Herbs And Allied Species 34
4 3 Materials And Methods 41
122.49 KB
  3.1 Field Surveys 41
  3.2 Criterion For The Selection Of Species 42
  3.3 Conservation Trials For Selected Medicinal Plants 43
  3.4 Establishment Of Demonstration Plots 48
  3.5 Questionnaire No.1 49
5 4 Results 51
1667.92 KB
  4.1 Traditional Knowledge Of Indigenous Medicinal Plants 51
  4.2 Market Survey Of Medicinal Plants 99
  4.3 Conservation Status 101
6 5 Discussion 110
206.8 KB
  5.1 Documentation Of Traditional Knowledge 110
  5.2 Extraction And Marketing 111
  5.3 In Situ Conservation Status 113
  5.4 Ex Situ Conservation Trials 117
  5.5 Conservation Through Community Participation 122
  5.6 Conservation Through Sustainable Utilization 124
7 6 Conclusion 127
59.98 KB
8 7 References 132
173.72 KB