Enhancement Of Dual Purpose Wheat Productivity Through Agronomic Techniques

Khalid, Naveed (2013) Enhancement Of Dual Purpose Wheat Productivity Through Agronomic Techniques. Doctoral thesis, Gomal University, D.I.Khan.

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Abstract

To find out agronomic practices for the enhancement of dual purpose wheat production, field experiments were carried out at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during the years 2009-10 and 2010-11. The research project was based on four experiments using wheat variety Zam-04 for optimizing planting dates, seeding rates, nitrogen levels and timing of nitrogen application for dual-purpose wheat production.The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated four times with factorial arrangement, except the time of nitrogen application which was a single factor experiment.The plot size was 5m x 1.8m.The experimental field was irrigated through flood irrigation.The first experiment was sown on four different dates with fifteen days interval commencing from October- 10 each year with cut (for forage and grain purpose) vs. no cut (for grain only) treatments.The data revealed maximum biological yield, grain protein content and benefit cost ratio in early sown crop and vice-versa. Maximum days to heading and number of productive tillers m-2 were recorded in October-25 sowing.Cutting significantly decreased leaf area indices and duration (112 DAS), crop growth rate, plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight and biological yield while number of days to heading and maturity were increased significantly.Number of productive tillers m-2 and grain yield significantly decreased during 2nd year study only by cutting while grain protein content was least affected. Higher benefit cost ratio was recorded in dual-purpose wheat (green fodder + grain) as compare to wheat sown for grain-only purpose on 25th October each year. The second experiment was sown with 100, 140, 180 and 220 kg seed ha-1 in cut (for forage and grain purpose) vs. no-cut (for grain only) treatments.The data showed maximum number of productive tillers m-2, biological yield, leaf area indices and duration (56 and 112 DAS), crop growth rate, fresh and dry forage yield, grain protein content (%), benefit cost ratio and grain yield by increasing seeding densities while the reverse was true for days to heading and maturity, number of grains spike-1 and spike length.Cutting negatively affected 1000-grain weight, biological yield, leaf area index and duration (112 DAS) and crop growth rate but resulted in increased number of days to heading and maturity in wheat. Higher grain protein content and benefit cost ratio was noted in cut treatment using highest seed rates.The third experiment was conducted to study the response of dual-purpose wheat using different nitrogen levels i.e. 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1 in cut (for forage and grain purpose) vs. no-cut (for grain only) treatments.The results revealed that maximum number of days to heading and maturity, plant height, number of productive tillers, spike length, number of grains spike-1, biological yield, grain protein content, 1000- grain weight, fresh and dry forage yield and grain yield were recorded in plots receiving more nitrogen and vice-versa. No-cut plots had the highest plant height, 1000 grain weight, leaf area index and duration (112 DAS) and crop growth rate as compare to cut plots.Dual-purpose wheat noted maximum BCR using 150 kg N ha-1.The interaction between cutting vs. non-cutting treatments and nitrogen levels showed a variable response.The fourth trial was laid out to see the response of time of nitrogen application on growth and yield of dual-purpose wheat.The results revealed that maximum number of days to heading and maturity, number of productive tillers, spike length, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, leaf area index and duration (112 days after sowing), crop growth rate and grain yield were recorded in plots that received more nitrogen after cutting.Fresh and dry forage yield were maximum either when full dose or higher quantity of recommended nitrogen was applied before sowing.Split application of nitrogen resulted in higher grain protein content over sole or control treatments.The application of nitrogen either in two equal splits or 25 % applied before sowing and 75 % after cut resulted in increased benefit cost ratio.On the basis of the research findings, it is concluded that dual-purpose wheat can be practiced by planting on October-25 using the highest seed rate of 220 kg ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer dose of 150 kg ha-1.The said nitrogen dose when applied in two equal splits or 25 % applied at sowing and 75 % after cut proved advantageous and economical over control.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Techniques, Enhancement, Agronomic, Wheat, Productivity, Dual
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Depositing User: Muhammad Khan Khan
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2016 04:50
Last Modified: 04 Oct 2016 04:50
URI: http://eprintstest.hec.gov.pk/id/eprint/2046

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