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Title of Thesis

Khalid Javed
Institute/University/Department Details
Area Study Center for Africa, North and South America/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
U.S. Studies
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
sino-indian war, united states, indo-us collaboration, china, sino-indian relations, india, border controversy, chiang kai-shek, guomindang-communist conflict, korean war, formosa problem, sino-soviet relationship, non-alignment, mcmahon line

In 1962, India and China fought a war which lasted for about one month, India was humiliated in the war. At that time, the United States also regarded China as its enemy number one. As Indian and American security interests converged both countries collaborated against China in a variety of ways, even after the war was over. Indian approach regarding preservation of its security interests underwent a drastic change. Previously, for protecting her security interests vis-a-vis China. India had primarily relied on political and diplomatic means and had severely criticized those countries which forged military alliances or sought military aid from external powers. In the Indian view, acceptance of military aid from an external power was tantamount to alignment with that power. In the wake of the 1962 Sino-Indian war, however, India sought large-scale military aid from the United States and other Western powers. She also made desperate appeals for direct American intervention in the war with squadrons of bombers and fighter planes. But still Indian Prime Minister claimed that India was non-aligned. How far this Indian claim was valid? The present study aims at providing a comprehensive answer to this question. It shows that in the wake of the 1962 Sino-Indian war, India actually followed a policy of bi-alignment (or double alignment) with the United States and the Soviet Union against China.

The second major issue relating to this study is the impact of Pakistan factor on America's arms aid policy for India. It is generally assumed in Pakistan that in the wake of the 1962 Sino-Indian war, the United States provided large-scale military aid to India and in the process completely ignored Pakistan and its interests. The present study challenges the validity of this assumption and shows that the Pakistan factor, along with some other factors, significantly limited the scope and potential of Indo-US collaboration against China. Other factors included prevalence of calm over the Sino-Indian border after November 21, 1962, Ambassador Galbraith's efforts to confine the Sino-Indian conflict, Indian efforts to maintain the posture of non-alignment, the increasing involvement of the United States in the Vietnam war and a number of other factors.

The quantum of military equipment and weapons actually given to India by the United States in the wake of the 1962 Sino-Indian war was quite limited. This study, however, shows that the US military aid, despite being limited in amount and quality, had great value for Indian security as it sought to deter Chinese aggression against India by showing that the United States was on the side of India. Moreover, Indo-US collaboration against China was not limited to the supply of American military equipment and weapons to India. India and the United States collaborated against China in a number of other ways also, both militarily and diplomatically.

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8307 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
234.56 KB
2 1 Introduction
113.73 KB
3 2 Sino-Indian Relations, 1949-1962 1
1002.03 KB
  2.1 The Initial Hostility: 1949-1950 1
  2.2 Sino-Indian Relations Improve: 1951-1953 5
  2.3 Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai Era: 1954-1958 7
  2.4 Beginning Of The Border Controversy: 1958 9
  2.5 Sino-Indian Dispute Becomes Public: 1959-1962 12
  2.6 India 's Forward Policy 17
  2.7 The Border War 21
4 3 Sino-US Relations, 1949-1962 29
708.76 KB
  3.1 US Support To Chiang Kai- Shek And Soviet Support To Communists 31
  3.2 US Mediation In The Guomindang -Communist Conflict 32
  3.3 American Acquiescence In Communist Conquest 33
  3.4 Communist Gestures Of Goodwill And US Response 34
  3.5 Korean War 36
  3.6 Formosa Problem 38
  3.7 Chinese Representation In The United Nations 40
  3.8 President Kennedy And China 41
5 4 US Interests In South Asia 49
665.5 KB
  4.1 South Asia's Importance To America 's Concerns In Southeast Asia 51
  4.2 South Asia's Importance To America 's Concerns In The Middle East 53
  4.3 Military Bases And Surveillance Activities 56
  4.4 Importance Of India 's Economic Development To America 's Concerns For The World Power Balance 57
  4.5 Diplomatic Interests 59
6 5 Indian Security Vis-A-Vis China : Indo-US Differences Prior To The Sino-Indian War Of 1962 67
980.21 KB
  5.1 India 's Geo-Political Compulsions And The Doctrine Of Defence Through Friendship 67
  5.2 Korean War: Divergent American And Indian Perspectives 69
  5.3 Chinese Intentions 70
  5.4 Nature Of Sino-Soviet Relationship 72
  5.5 US Policy Of Organizing Military Alliances And Indian Response 75
  5.6 India Rejects US Offers Of Military Aid 80
  5.7 American Criticism Of Non-Alignment 81
  4.8 Panchsheel : Indian And American Viewpoints 82
  4.9 The 1959 Sino-Indian Clashes And The United States 84
  4.10 Kennedy's New Approach To Foreign Policy And India 's Response 85
7 6 Indo-US Military Collaboration In The Wake Of The Sino-Indian War Of 1962 94
1591.5 KB
  6.1 Indian Requests For Military Aid And The US Response 94
  6.2 Umbrella Plan And Joint Air Exercises 105
  6.3 VOA Deal 109
  6.4 U-2 Spy Planes To Operate From India 110
  6.5 Monitoring Stations On Himalayan Peaks 110
  6.6 Emerging New Patterns Of Big Powers Relationship And India 's Policy Of Non-Alignment 111
8 7 The Sino-Indian Conflict And The Indo-US Collaboration In Diplomatic And Economic Fields 127
739.57 KB
  7.1 Indo-US Collaboration At The United Nations 129
  7.2 Non-Aligned World , India And The USA 130
  7.3 Indo-US Collaboration On Southeast Asian Affairs 132
  7.4 India , The USA And The "Two Chinas" Scheme 133
  7.5 The USA Endorses India 's Stand On McMahon Line 134
  7.6 US Diplomatic Pressure On Pakistan For India 's Advantage 135
  7.7 Menon's Removal Pleases The USA 135
  7.8 Economic Collaboration 136
9 8 Constraints On Indo-US Collaboration Against China 143
2523.71 KB
  8.1 The Pakistan Factor 144
  8.2 Sino-Pakistan Ties 147
  8.3 US Concern About Peace And Security In South Asia 153
  8.4 Galbraith's Efforts To Confine Sino-Indian Conflict 162
  8.5 All Quiet On The Sino-Indian Border 164
  8.6 Indian Efforts To Maintain The Posture Of Non-Alignment 166
  8.7 Indian Concern About Soviet Reaction To Indo-US Ties 167
  8.8 The Growing Anti-Aid Feelings In US Congress 168
  8.9 Formosa Factor 169
  8.10 1965 Indo-Pak War And Growing American Involvement In Vietnam 170
  8.11 Summary And Conclusions 183
  8.12 Appendices 189
  8.13 Bibliography 200