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Title of Thesis

Ghazala Misbah
Institute/University/Department Details
Taxila Institute of Asian Civillizations/ Quaid-i-Azam University
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
floral decoration, mughal buildings, mughal architectural heritage, central asian architecture, persian architecture, flora

Introduction Mughals entered in Indo-Pak. subcontinent with a unique grace and ruled It from 1526 to 1859 They introduced tremendous changes in the art } l1st Ory of South AsiaIndo-Pak subcontinent had remained under the influence of vanous rulmg dvnastJ-::s., .includmg Central Asian, Persian and Sultanate dynasty. The amalgam of whIch shaped thLarcl1Jtectural hentage of Mughals, i.e., chapter number one, for which' different book"provIded information Central Asian architecture is discussed in detail in valuable volumes ofthe Journal of Central ASia, edited by professor A H. Dam Authentic books of ParkstOIc, CA Pougatchenkova, L Umnyakov, Tuirikov v., Aleskerov Y N., Titus furckhay~tDonald and Wilber, Antony Hutt, RA Jairazbhoy, R Nath and Percy Brown accommodatt;.; informatIOn about architecture of Central Asia and Persia and that of Indo-Pak subcontllH.:ntThe Mughal constructions had attracted many writers to dIscuss the characteristIcs of different Mughal buildings, under a single authorship or to describe the buildmg separatelv In an mdlvidual book. Origmaltty, individuality and mabrnificence are the hallmarks of Mughals. The founder of Mughal dynasty, Zahir-ud-Din Babur, bears excellent aesthetic taste and love for the beauty nature The surroundings of his homeland. Farghana, inspired hIm to such an extent that <' tter capturmg India he wanted to turn its dry and barren land as fresh and fragrant as Central \<;IaThe scarcity of water was overcome by producmg artificial lakes and water wheels In thIs way he planted the first Mughal garden in Indo-Pak subcontinent, Aram Bagh reHects the plan of Timur's gardens in Herat and Samarkand. Jehangir improved the Mughal gardens In Kashmir and India, whereas Shahjehan's Shalamar garden in Lahore was the chmax of garden craft In Indo Pak subcontinent. The books of Saifur-R,hman Dar, Abdul Rehrnan SanadKauser. J Brookes, Elizbeth Moynihan and CM. Vtl\ter provIded matenal for tht; V1ughal and other histoncal gardens. The tomb architecture in three stages was a Central Asian inspiration. For instance, the tomb of Samamd Sultan lsmatl and mausoleum of Bibi Khanum InspIred most of the 1'v1u\.!n(11tombs The central ASIan mosques of Khwaja Mashadi, TaJlkistan, with the hwh port!symmetry and spaCIOusness, inspired Jaml mosque Fatehpur Slkn and Badshahl mos'lue Lahore ete Humayun spent most o[his tIme 111 the court of Shah Tehmasp, in PersIa, dunng the peno_ hIs exile. where he was Impressed with work of Persian artists. Then he came back to Ir he brought with him some of the renowned artists, i.e., Mir Seyyid Alt Tebrizi, KhwaJa \bllll Samad and Abul Hassan They brought marvellous development In the art of n1!rl1t Padma Lotus. Nagpasha, Satkona, Ghanti kas , Chakra, Swastica, hangmg beJls and ...,' design. arumals, birds and human figures are added with calligraphy, geometnc desJz:,) J abstract shapes as exquisitely balanced compositions This trend was reduced m reign, whereas the art of garden craft and miniature pamtings reached to cltma speclahsts of flora and fauna were encouraged with rewards and tltles. HIS patrOl1lS21 ;r motIvated the princes, pnncesses, govemors and noblemen to plant enchanting garden" gardens of Kashnm and those around the tomb or'lttyn Oi.d-ud-Daula and Akbar lil '\"Sh P-thJehans tIme depictton of Hindu elements was almost dIsappeared except hang1le; 1' and cham desIgns, but the floral omamentatlons expanded with surpnsmg beam T sophisticated flora III mmiature paintmgs of Jehanglr's tune on hard surface of S{;)II~ l~ presented with extreme sensitivity, delicacy and refined taste. In the reIgn of Aurangzci1 11 art gradually declmed, except a few mosques. In this penod exaggeratIon and duph",,' decorative and architectural features is observed wlthout anv mo and B<\I1(ster Fletcher in their valuable books.In the present research the flora is classified into four categories, including flower' rc..~S chmber and leaf The frequently depicted flowers in Mughal era include Lotus, Iji, . 1 Ins. CarnatIOn and Narcissus, inhabitants of cold climate and are introduced from I-\.r<.; Central ASIan temtones, whereas other flora. like Sunflower, Jasmine. HIbiSCUS, rcsD at R Nath 1\nnemarie Schimmel. Khatibl AbdJI hhablo and Pri, '" proy Ided a ground for comparatIve studyGeometnc desle,'11S 111 IslamIc art is described in detaIl by Essam El -Satd and T V"h1Ch heloed the companson of the geometric motIfs of Mughal constTuctlon.lslarmc monuments. The flora depicted in Mughal monuments break the ngidlty of gcl. 'Iwes and creates flowmg movement through curves, colours and delicacy of Imp. intenor and extenor of Maryam Zamani and Wazir Khan mosqueFlora IS splendldlv composed with human figures, animals and birds. This trend mtrw,Akbar. wh!ch :s a Hindu IOsplration. In Mughal architecture it IS portrayed v. :r,slmplific<'ltJOIl and balance. This theme has created overcrowded effect In llmdu arch c' For such detail the account of Rea Alexr can be studied that provides valuable mfcr' 1, about Chel!kvan architecture In Mughal buildings through less detarJ and SlIllphlic!tl.l decoLltlOn not only focuses the subject but it becomes an Integral part of the strULl \. wlth()ut dIsturbmg tbe pnmary importance of the building.In the 1ast chapter the skill and thoughtfulness of Mughals IS analysed and pn>!<;: Vaf'.lng degrees. Sa.JJad IJaider, Vogel J. Veni!.1.o. Porter, R Nath and other \T,' discussed the artistic approach of Mughals and world\vide buildmgs, regardmg tr' pamted. chiselled and embedded flora. Flora IS furnished m dazzlmg technIques <.1 ofonstructlOn with stylisation, modification, abstractIOn, as repeated pattern" " arabesque It creates slow and fast movement on different scales, Icndlllg a music,!the whole atmosphere, which IS emphasised with coloured photographs In thistbule IS paid to the artIstIc skIll, botanical kno\-vledge and geI1lus of Mughals fl1 i.:'artisans, architects and designers.

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
1384.63 KB
2 1 Mughal Architectural Heritage
198.49 KB
  1.1 Central Asian Architecture
  1.2 Persian Architecture
  1.3 Architecture In Indo-Pak Sub-Continent
  1.4 Mughal Architecture
3 2 Flower-Decoration In Mughal And Asian World Architecture
2846.68 KB
  2.1 Lotus
  2.2 Lily
  2.3 Tulip
  2.4 Narcissus
  2.5 Iris
  2.6 Carnation
  2.7 Sunflower
  2.8 Chrysanthemum
  2.9 Zinnia
  2.10 Dahlia
  2.11 Hibiscus
  2.12 Jasmine
  2.13 Rose, Poppy And Morning Glory
4 3 Trees And Leaves In Mughal And Asian World Architecture
2837.08 KB
  3.1 Trees
  3.2 Climber
  3.3 Leaf
5 4 Flora Composed With Various Subjects 155
9901.45 KB
  4.1 Flora And Calligraphy 155
  4.2 Flora And Geometry 166
  4.3 Flora And Figural Representations 175
6 5 Artistic Excellence Of Mughal Buildings 238
6752.85 KB
  5.1 Role Of Flora In Execution Of Technique 239
  5.2 Marvel Of Sculptural Flora 249
  5.3 Multiplication Of Flora With Variation In Style 257
  5.4 Modification And Stylisation Of Flora 263
  5.5 Conclusion 413
  5.6 Bibliography 424