I= AGRARIAN SOCIETY IN TRANSITION: MODERNISATION, DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE- A CASE STUDY OF THE POTWAR
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Title of Thesis
AGRARIAN SOCIETY IN TRANSITION: MODERNISATION, DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE- A CASE STUDY OF THE POTWAR

Author(s)
Mina Zulfikar Ali
Institute/University/Department Details
Taxila Institute of Asian Civilization, Quaid-i-Azam University
Session
2003
Subject
Asian Civilization
Number of Pages
365
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
agrarian society, potwar, modernisation, development, biradari, role of women, settlement pattern, kinship, marriage, sectarianism, religion, arid agriculture, agricultural expenditure

Abstract
This study was focused on aspects of social-cultural change in a village in the Potwar region, incorporating a period of fifty years and focusing on modernisation, development and change in rural Potwar. The nature of the study was both descriptive and exploratory. It was an in-depth micro level study based on ethnographic data and using anthropological methodology to link the past with the present whereby comparing the traditional pattern of the people with the present status.

The unit of analysis was the household. Research methodology was based on a field study, which included participant observation, use of key informants, socio-economic survey, and focus group discussion. Extensive case studies were collected as well as indepth interviews were conducted with the farmers of the area, women and the more senior members or elder members of the community. Data was elicited according to the objectives outlined based on social cultural and economic change through time, income, the agricultural system, impact of technological innovation and mass media, male-out migration as well as the status of the returnee migrants. Hypotheses testing was done based on the variables formulated for the research.

The study revealed that change in this particular community was brought about due mainly to introduction of new technology, which had greatly simplified farm work and brought about a substantial saving of time. Thus additional means of livelihood particularly employment for men had become quite common. Most of the men were employed in government jobs and the private sector. Proximity of Islamabad and Rawalpindi had further facilitated job opportunities.

Particularly noticeable was the role of women in the absence of males who took over the agricultural, social and household responsibilities. In spite of the element of change, the system of biradari and religious values had a strong hold. Though forcing ahead towards change. the core or the central value system was by and large still traditional and these people always looked towards their roots and took great pride in their ancestry.

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7840.82 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
299.21 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
856.5 KB
  1.1 The Problem 7
  1.2 Objectives Of Research 8
  1.3 Hypotheses 10
  1.4 Key Concepts Used In The Study 12
  1.5 Significance Of The Study 13
  1.6 Theoretical Framework 14
  1.7 Area Profile Of Potwar 18
  1.8 Locale Of Research 28
  1.9 Research Methodology 31
  1.10 Sampling 37
3 2 Review Of Related Literature 42
423.29 KB
4 3 Village Profile 62
1678.01 KB
  3.1 Introduction 62
  3.2 History Of The Village 62
  3.3 The Village Setting 64
  3.4 Settlement Pattern 69
  3.5 Meaning Of Hard-O- Gehr 70
5 4 Biradari , Kinship And Marriage 115
650.21 KB
  4.1 Biradari 115
  4.2 Kinship And Marriage 129
6 5 Religion-The Rise Of Sectarianism 149
496.62 KB
  5.1 The Bareilvi And Deobandi Bifurcation 149
  5.2 The Rise Of Sectarianism 152
  5.3 Belief In Saints And Shrines 166
7 6 Modernisation , Development And Change Part One 174
1289.43 KB
  6.1 Farmer's Viewpoint 174
  6.2 System Of Arid Agriculture 176
  6.3 Sources Of Agricultural Expenditure And Income 186
8 7 Modernisation , Development And Change Part Two 218
568.92 KB
  7.1 Women's Viewpoint 218
9 8 Modernisation , Development And Change Part Three 242
861.28 KB
  8.1 Elder's Viewpoint 242
10 9 Summary And Conclusion 275
155.64 KB
11 10 Appendices 284
980.12 KB