The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an indigenous self-report measure of emotional empathy, named as Emotional Empathy Scale (EES). It was based on the model of emotional empathy as proposed by Mehrabian (1996). The factorial validity of the scale was determined on a sample of 331 postgraduate students (166 men and 165 women) belonging to various educational institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.
The 30 items of the EES were subjected to principal components analysis. The eigenvalues and associated scree plot provided evidence for a three factor solution. The three factors were examined using varimax rotation. A total of 26 items loaded at .30 and above on the first three factors, which collectively accounted for 42% of the items variance. The three factors were labeled (a) Tendency to be moved by others' positive and negative emotional experiences, (b) Emotional responsiveness, and (c) Susceptibility to emotional contagion.
The reliability estimate of alpha coefficient (a = .85), item-total correlation (ranging from r = .31 to .60, p< .000), and split half-reliability (.83) supported the high internal consistency of the 26-item EES. The present study also assessed gender differences in emotional empathy. Results from t-test analyses yielded a significant difference between men and women on the trait of emotional empathy, t (279) = 3.94, p< .000. A sample of 331 university students provided the following norms for the EES: Mean = 143; Standard deviation = 20.1. The percentile scores were also computed, which might be used as group norms.
The construct validity of the Emotional Empathy Scale (EES) was determined by examining the convergent and discriminant validities. In this regard, four studies were conducted. Using a sample of 101 postgraduate students (57 men and 44 women), the convergent validity of the EES was assessed by correlating it with the affective measure of emotional empathy-the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) (Mehrabian, 1996).
A high correlation of. 65 (p< .000) was obtained between the two scales. As a discriminant validity check, the second study examined the relation of the EES with Urdu translated version of Affiliative Tendency Scale (MAFF), originally developed by Mehrabian (1994). This study was conducted on a sample of 150 postgraduate students (75 men and 75 women). Hypotheses tested were: (a) Emotional Empathy Scale (EES) will be positively correlated with Affiliative Tendency Scale (MAFF), and (b) individuals higher in emotional empathy will be more affiliative, as compared to individuals lower in emotional empathy. As expected, the EES yielded a significant and positive correlation coefficient of. -18 (p< .000) with affiliative tendency. Moreover, t-test analyses exhibited that the low scorers and the high scorers on the EES significantly differed on the variable of affiliative tendency, t (148) = 5.48, P < .000.
The third study assessed the relation of EES with translated version of Self Reported Delinquency Scale (SRDSG), which was originally developed by Gibson (1971). The study was conducted on a sample of 125 adolescent boys, with an average age of 16. 9 years, S.D. = 1.8. Following hypotheses were tested: (a) Emotional empathy will be negatively correlated with delinquency, and (b) individuals higher in emotional empathy will score lower on the measure of delinquency as compared to individuals lower in emotional empathy. A significant negative correlation coefficient of -.28 (p< .001) was obtained between the scales of EES and SRDSG. Results from the t-test analyses indicated that the mean difference of the high and low groups on EES was significant on SRDSG, t (12-1) = 2.95, p< .00-1.
The fourth study examined the relationship of EES with Trait Emotional Awareness Scale (TEAS), as a discriminant validity check. This study took place in two parts. Part I dealt with the development of an indigenous measure of trait emotional awareness, named as Trait Emotional Awareness Scale (TEAS). Part 2 concerned itself with assessing the discriminant validity of the EES, by examining its relation with TEAS. In Part I, the development of Trait Emotional Awareness Scale was guided by the trait meta-mood model of Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, and Palfai (1995). The factorial validity of the TEAS was determined on a sample of 182 postgraduate students (91 men and 91women).
The 36-item TEAS was subjected to principal components analysis. On the basis of eigenvalues and scree discontinuity test, the three factors solution was favored Varimax rotation was performed to obtain a simple factor solution, which yielded 25 items loading at .40 and above on the first three factors. The three factors jointly explained 38.5% of total items variance. The three factors were labeled as (a) Attention to feelings, (b) Regulation, and (c) Clarity of feelings. The data on 25-item TEAS yielded an alpha coefficient of. 76, item-total correlation ranging from .28 to .55 (p< .000), and a split-half reliability coefficient of. 72. Thus, indicating that the 25-item measure has good internal consistency and split-half reliability. Part 2 of this investigation was conducted on a sample of 150 postgraduate students (75 men and 75 women). Following hypotheses were tested: (a) trait emotional awareness will be positively correlated with emotional empathy, and (b) individuals high in trait emotional awareness will score high on the measure of emotional empathy as compared to individuals lower in trait emotional awareness. Results indicated that trait emotional awareness was significantly and positively associated with emotional empathy (1' = . oil, p< .000). The results of an independent groups t-test revealed that individuals in the high trait emotional awareness group attained significantly greater scores on the EES (M = 98.6, S.D. = 10.0) than individuals in the low trait emotional awareness group (M = 92.2, S.D. = 11.1), t (148) = 3.70, p< .000.
Results from the convergent and discriminant validity studies provided a strong evidence for the construct validity of the Emotional Empathy Scale (EES). The present investigation was also designed to examine the role of trait emotional awareness as a dispositional predictor of emotional empathy, and its potential outcomes, such as affiliative tendency and aggression. This study was conducted on a sample of 200 postgraduate students (100 men and 100 women), who were administered the Emotional Empathy Scale (EES), Trait Emotional Awareness Scale (TEAS), Urdu translated version of Affiliative Tendency Scale (MAFF) (Mehrabian, 1994), and Urdu translated version of Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) (Buss & Peny, 1992). In order to assess the extent of prediction of emotional empathy from its dispositional predictor, the relation of trait emotional awareness with emotional empathy was examined. Results from co relational analysis and linear regression analysis yielded that trait emotional awareness explained a significant proportion of variance in emotional empathy (R:! = .18, F = 44.26, p< .000). As regards the potential outcome variables of emotional empathy, results from linear regression analyses indicated that emotional empathy significantly predicted affiliative tendency (R:! = .26, F = 70.13, p< .000) and aggression (R:! = .18, F = 43.25, p< .000).
The present study also examined the role of emotional empathy as a mediator between trait emotional awareness and affiliative tendency. Results from path analysis clearly indicated that affiliative tendency was better predicted by the combination of trait emotional awareness and emotional empathy (R:! = .28, F = 38.3, p< .000) than by either separately. Similarly, the role of emotional empathy as a mediator between trait emotional awareness and aggression was examined using path analysis. It was found that the combined effect of trait emotional awareness and emotional empathy on aggression (R2 = .27, F = 35.79, p< .000) 1vas greater as compared to the individual effects. These results verified the mediational role of emotional empathy.