Malik, Anila Amber (2002) THE STUDY OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AS A DETERMINING FACTOR IN DEPRESSED AND NON-DEPRESSED AS MEASURE BY AN INDIGENOUSLY DEVELOPED SOCIAL SUPPORT SCALE. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.
The present research study purports to develop an indigenous social support scale in Urdu language, which could be better suited to our environment due to cultural and linguistic affinity than Western available scales, to measure the role that social support plays in individual's health and well being. More specifically it attempts to measure the importance of social support in depression as prevalent in our society. Gender differences were also taken into account in measuring the role of social support in depression. The study also aimed at finding out relationship between social support and self esteem. The present research is carried out in three parts namely Study I, Studyll and Study III. In Study I, which comprises of three phases, included a pilot study where 52 items were generated on perceived availability of social support by taking taking into account the findings of group discussion with 50 students of Karachi university. This indigenous social support scale was administered on 60 students (30 male, 30 female) of the University of Karachi for finding out the major weaknesses omission, ambiguities and inadequacies of the items. In the second phase the 52 items of social support scale, after being classified in five sub-categories namely Informational support, Tangible aid, Emotional support, Esteem support and Social network support, were administered on 382 (191 female and 191 male) students between the age of 19-27 of University of Karachi. Item-total correlations for all the 52 items were calculated by using Pearson r. The criterion for selecting item was taken to be 0.05. 51 items had their "r" value significant at 0.01 alpha level. Ist, 2nd, 3rd, Quartiles of Social Support Scale and its five subscales were also calculated. Cronbach alpha of Social Support Scale was found to be 0.9402. Inter correlations of the Social Support Scale and of all five Subscales. Inter-correlations were found to be significant at.0.01 alpha level. Inter-item correlations of all five subscales were also calculated which showed that most of the correlations were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 alpha level. Item-Subscale correlations of all five subscales were significant at 0.01 alpha level. The social support scale demonstrated its strength by providing significant test-retest reliability (r = 0.850) at 0.01 alpha level. In an attempt to determine the discriminant and convergent validity of social support scale, five scale were administered on a sample of 100 subjects in the third phase of Study I and it was found that there is a significant relationship between social support scale and known measures of, UCLA loneliness scale, Satisfaction with life scale, Life orientation test, and Zest for life scale. In study II the following hypotheses were tested i) The lesser the social support one receives more she/he will suffer from depression. ii) Female and male will different terms of receiving social support. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Siddique Shah depression scale. The study found a significant inverse relationship between social support and depression, for non-clinical and clinical groups. Pearson r for female Non-clinical group was found to be insignificant whereas for male Non-clinical group it was found to be significant at 0.05 level. For female clinical group it was significant at 0.01 level while for male clinical group was significant at 0.05 level. The purpose of the Study III was to explore the relationship between Social Support and Self Esteem .The following, hypotheses were formulated for this study. Social Support and Self Esteem will be positively related with each other. High Scial Support leads to higher level of Self Esteem whereas low Social Support leads to low level of Self Esteem. Pearson r values showed a significant relationship for the hypotheses. The Social Support Scale appears to be a reliable and valid measure of the extent to which Informational support, Tangible aid, Emotional support, Social network support, can be measured in the concept of social support. The scale shows promise for measuring five dimensions of social support. Gender related findings also indicate that males and females both are vulnerable to depression due to lesser social support, and social support is also positively related to self-esteem.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Social support, Depressed, Non-Depressed, Depression, Mental Health, Emotional Support,|
|Subjects:||Social Sciences(g) > Psychology (g16)|
|Deposited By:||Mr Ghulam Murtaza|
|Deposited On:||23 Aug 2006|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:00|
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