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Title of Thesis

Munir ul Hassan Munir
Institute/University/Department Details
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
paleogene rocks, hazara, azad kashmir, upper cretaceous, kawagarh formation, hangu formation, lockhart limestone, patala formation, margala hill limestone, chorgali formation, kuldana formation

The Hazara-Azad Kashmir area lies in the northwest Himalayas of Pakistan. The Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene rocks are exposed in the fossiliferous sedimentary coyer sequence of the Indian plate. The Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene rock sequence of the Kawagarh Formation, Hangu Formation, Lockhart Limestone, Patala Formation, Margala Hill Limestone, Chorgali Formation and Kuldana Formation has been investigated for micropalaeontological and paleoecological studies. In Hazara area, the Cenomanian to Campanian marine transgressive cycle Deposited the micritic limestoncs of Kawagarh Formation on the north shelf of the Neotethys ocean below the Kohistan Island arc. The presence of planktonic foraminiferal. genera such as Globotruncana, Rugoglobigerina, Hetcrohclix, Planularia, Lcnticulina, Globorotalitcs, Buliminclla and Vaginulina in Kawagarh Formation suggests that the formation deposited in shelf outer neritic conditions. This transgressive cycle ended before the Maastrichtian as a result the regressive to partially transgressive facies of Early Paleocene Hangu Formation deposited unconformably on the Kawagarh Formation. This regressive cycle occurred between the Maastrichtian to lower Danian (?). This regressive gap is marked by the aerial, tropical and sub tropical brecciated quartzite, laterite and bauxite facies of the lower Danian (?) basal part of the Hangu Formation. However, the upper part of the Hangu Formation deposited partially transgressive restricted shallow marine to lagoonal facies as carbonaceous shales, coal seams, sandstones and siltstone in upper Danian (?). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary on the basis of fossils cannot be marked in Hazara and Azad Kashmir, as there is no record of Maastrichtian and Danian fauna. However, the K-T Boundary can be placed at the basal residual part of the Hangu Formation.

The second transgressive cycle deposited the Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene shallow marine limestone and shale sequence that includes the Lockhart Limestone, Patala Formation, Margala Hill Limestone and Chorgali Formation. The Middle Eocene Kuldana Formation records the transitional environments and marks the closing of the Neotethys Ocean and initiation of Middle Eocene to Miocene continental molasse of the Murrce Formation.

In this study 23 sections were measured from Hazara and Azad Kashmir. More than 1000 outcrop samples were analysized for microfossils, microfacies and paleoecology of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene sequence.

The Paleogene of Hazara and Kashmir includes the genera of larger and smaller benthic foraminiferas such as Lockhartia, Operculina, Miscellanea; Ranikothalia, Assilina, Nummulites, Alveolina, Clavulina, Quinqueloculina, Spiroloculina and Thalmannita. The microfacies and faunal analyses represent warm shallow marine inner shelf or inner neritic environments during Paleogene transgression cycle. The Paleocene-Eocene Boundary is marked on the basis of disappearance of Operclunia salas and Miscellanea miscella and the appearance of Nummulites atacicus and Nummulites mammillatus in the upper part of the Patala Formation and basal part of the Margala Hill Limestone respectively.

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15012.2 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
269.66 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
194.84 KB
  1.1 Purpose and scope 1
  1.2 Location and accessibility 2
  1.3 Previous work 4
  1.4 Method of Investigation 6
3 2 Physiography 10
68.5 KB
  2.1 Topography and Relief 10
  2.2 Drainage and water supply 10
  2.3 Vegtation 11
  2.4 Climate 11
4 3 Upper Cretaceous 13
1069.4 KB
  3.1 Kawagarh Formation 13
5 4 Paleogene 29
3415.03 KB
  4.1 Hangu Formation 29
  4.2 Lockhart Limestone 37
  4.3 Patala Formation 55
  4.4 Margala Hill Limestone 65
  4.5 Chorgali Formation 81
  4.6 Kuldana Formation 94
6 5 Systematic Palaeontology 103
9564.65 KB
  5.1 Family Globotruncanidae 103
  5.2 Family Heterohelicidae 122
  5.3 Family Turrilinidae 124
  5.4 Family Nodosariidae 125
  5.5 Family Osangulariidae 126
  5.6 Family Lagenidae 127
  5.7 Family Nummulitidae 128
  5.8 Family Rotaliidae 243
  5.9 Family Orbitoididae 255
  5.10 Family Globorotaliidae 256
  5.11 Family Textularidae 259
  5.12 Family Verneulinidae 262
  5.13 Family Lageniidae 263
  5.14 Family Valvulinidae 264
  5.15 Family Hantkeninidae 265
  5.16 Family Anomalinidae 266
  5.17 Ostracoda 271
  5.18 Algae 271
  5.19 Echinoid Spines 271
7 6 Paleoecology 272
288.74 KB
  6.1 Introduction 272
  6.2 Cretaceous €“ Tertiary Boundary (K €“ Boundary) 274
  6.3 Paleocene €“ Eocene Boundary 277
  6.4 Concluding Remarks 278
8 7 Geological History 284
81.3 KB
  7.1 Upper Cretaceous 284
  7.2 Paleocene 284
  7.3 Eocene 286
9 8 Discussion and Correlation 288
86.87 KB
10 9 Summary and Conclusion 292
360.22 KB
  9.1 References 295