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Title of Thesis

Iftikhar Ahmad
Institute/University/Department Details
University of the Punjab
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
genus stocksia, sapindaceae, dodonaea; sapindus, cupaniopsis, cardiospermum, stocksia, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, proteins, lipids, angiosperms, terpenes, saponins, tanins

Sapindaceae, a tropical and sub tropical family of 158 genera and 2230 species, is economically very important. This family is represented by five genera, Dodonaea; Sapindus, Cupaniopsis, Cardiospermum and Stocksia. The species of these genera are rich in biologically active components, e.g., saponins, flavonoids, steroids, proteins and lipids. The work on the species of the Sapindaceae family located in Pakistan was therefore, carried out in order to find out the efficacy of the isolates against certain biological disorders. As the plant species Stocksia brahuica of the genus Stocksia was not available, therefore phytochemical investigations of the species of the genera Dodonaea, Sapindus and Cardiospermum were carried out as a part of our project on Sapindaceae family of Pakistan.

Proximate analysis and mineral composition of seed ash of the species Cardiospermum halicacabum, Dodonaea viscosa and Sapindus mukorossi were carried out.

Cardiospermum halicacabum Phytochemical examination of the extracts of the plant species Cardiospermum halicacabum showed the presence of glycosides, steroids flavones and reducing sugars. Each extract was analysed. The aerial parts extract in ethanol showed four spots on TLC. The compound with Rf 0.16 on isolation showed deep purple colour under UV light, its identification was confirmed by its chemical and spectral analysis. The compound was luteolin glycoside. The other compound, Rf 0.08 was identified as B.sitosterol. The sugar portion of these glycosides was found to be glucose and galactose, which were confirmed by comparison with the authentic specimens. The roots’ extract of the plant showed the presence of B.sitosterol and veratic acid. The alcoholic extracts of the leaves showed the presence of glycosides which were tested for saccharides moiety of the aglycones. The sugars identified were glucose, galactose a.nd glucuronic acid.

Lipids (32.8%) from the finely ground seeds of Cardiospermum halicacabum were extracted and purified. The seed lipids of this species are unique in having a very high percent of unsaturated fatty acids particularly C20:1 acid as one of the chief component acid in its glycerides. The lipid fractions of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. include also arachidie, linoleic, oleic, stearic and other lower fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of lipid fractions of this species was carried out first time.

Dodonaea viscosa L. Different parts of the plant Dodonaea viscosa L. were extracted with different organic solvents and phytochemical analysis showed the presence of glycosides, terpenes, flavones, and steroids, Dodonic acid was isolated and confirmed from the ether extract of the aerial parts of the plant. -Sitosterol was also present in the hexane extract of the plant material. Alcoholic extract of leaves showed the presence of quinonoid compounds whereas 5,7,3,4-tetrahydroxy flavone was isolated and characterized from the alocholic extract of root bark Kaempferol was isolated and identified from the flowers of Dodonaea viscosa L.

Much work has been reported on the seed oil composition of Sapindaceae family but no work was reported on the lipids and lipid fractions of Dodonaea viscosa L. It has been the first attempt to find out the fatty acid composition of total lipid and lipid fractions of the seed of this species. The lipid classes separated by thin layer chromatography were neutral lipids (65.64%) and polar lipids (34.36%). The total lipid composition was foun1 to be very similar to the seed oil composition. The unsaponfiable matter showed the presence of B-sitosterol. The seed cake protein on anal1is showed the presence of arginine, lysine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, valine, serine and glutamic acid in its composition.

The essential oil of the Dodonaea viscosa seeds was tested for antimicrobial activity against seven gram positive and three gram negative bacteria by the zone inhibition and by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The oil showed effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and was not inhibitory to Micrococcus flavus and Sarcina lutea.

Sapindus mukorossi Sapindus mukorossi, a plant species of genus Sapindus was very extensively studied. Proximate analysis of seeds and roots indicated seed oil 37.4%, protein 21.6%, 9.60% and the ash content 4.6%, 6.7% respectively. The mineral composition of seeds and of roots showed very much similarity with the reported results. The amino acids composition of seed meal proteins contained lysine, serine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, valine, glycine, tryptophan, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and proline.

Sapindus mukorossi seed lipids (37.40%) were analysed for their physicochemical characteristics and were fractionated into lipid fractions. The fatty acids composition of each fraction of lipids and total lipids contained palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosenoic, and behenic acids. Our results showed the same pattern of fatty acids but different in percentage as is of the Sapindaceous species.

A sapogenin, hederagenin, C31 H50O4, was isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukoross. Sapindoside B, a derivative of the sapogenin, hederagein was isolated and its structure was established from the ethanol extract of the fruit shells of this species. Polyphenolic compounds quercetin, kaempferol and rutin were isolated land identified from the alcoholic extracts of leaves and stems.

The carbohydrates of the glycosides were obtained on hydrolysis and were identified as glucose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, xylose and glucuronic acid.

Download Full Thesis
8439.04 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
972.11 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
474.22 KB
  1.1 The Plant Kingdom 6
  1.2 Groups Of Angiosperms 7
  1.3 Classification Of Dicotyledons 8
3 2 Family Sapindaceae 10
607.05 KB
  2.1 Economic Importance 11
  2.2 Medicinal Applications 14
4 3 Major Chemical Components Of Sapinddceae Family 20
1030.86 KB
  3.1 Flavonoids 20
  3.2 Classification Of Flavonoids 23
  3.3 Occurrence In Nature 26
  3.4 Economic Importance Of Flavonoids 27
  3.5 Terpenes 33
  3.6 Saponins 38
  3.7 Tanins 39
5 4 Review Of Literature 40
1625.32 KB
  4.1 Genus Cardiospermum 40
  4.2 Genus Dodonaea 45
  4.3 Genus Sapindus 55
  4.4 Genus Stocksia 70
6 5 Materials And Methods 72
1423.47 KB
  5.1 Instruments 72
  5.2 Solvents 73
  5.3 Chemical / Reagents 74
  5.4 Plant Material 74
  5.5 Preparation Different Parts Of The Plants For Extracts 74
  5.6 Lipids 83
  5.7 Flavonoids 86
  5.8 Preparation Of Cardiospermum Halicacabum Dodonaea Viscose And Sapindus Mukorossi Extracts For Flavonoids 89
  5.9 Separation Of Flavonoids 90
  5.10 Identification Of Flavonoids 95
  5.11 Sapoinins 95
  5.12 Sugars 96
  5.13 Essential Oils 99
  5.14 Anti-Bacterial Studies Of Essential Oils 100
7 6 Results And Discussion 102
2519.33 KB
  6.1 Cardiospermum Halicacabum 102
  6.2 Dodonaea Viscosa 112
  6.3 Sapindus Mukorossi 126
  6.4 References 148