Theme of the thesis: Effect of Urdu fiction on the Partition of Hind. The thesis comprises of five chapters. In the first two chapters, the political, social and religious background of Pakistan movement, division of Hind and the aftermath or circumstances thereafter are described. Whereas in the third, fourth and fifth chapter, an investigative and critical analysis of the effect of partition of Hind, on Urdu fiction and novel, has been made.
The first chapter is entitled: It is about political, social and religious background of the sub- continent and makes up three sections.
SECTION A: In this section, the political history of the sub-continent has been described. It tells about the advent of Muslim in sub - cont, the rule ship of Muhammad bin Qasim towards the reign of Mughal dynasty, and simultaneous sly the arrival of the British and their interference in the politics of Hindostan and taking control over India by taking advantage of Mughal weaknesses. All these events have been friefly described so that reasons of nations in Hindustan may be ancilyseed.
SECTION B: In sec. B the cultural conditions of Hindostan are narrated. In this regard, the caste system of the Hindus is focused of with emphasis. As a consequence of the atrocities of the cost system, a brief analysis has been made to describe how Islam, Jainism, Bhaddism, Sikhism Kabir Panthi, sanatun Dharami and Aryan culture flourished.
In the same section, the difference between the religious, sultare and Language of the Hindus and Muslim has been closely described.
SECTION C: In Sec. C, the Hindu Muslim differences after 1857, and the struggle of the Muslim against the Hindus and the English, and efforts in the making of Pakistan are mentioned in detail. In this regard, a detailed account of the different Hindu and Muslim movements has been given.
In the Second chapter, the division of Hindu after the long and antiriag struggle of the Muslim and the establishment of Pakistan has been mentioned. And during this period, the various canning and unjust behavior of the Hindus and the English towards the Muslim, especially the conspiracy of Lord Mount batten, Lord Mountbatten and the Hindus in the early untimely division of the country are presented. These chapter consists of four parts. In the first part, Hindu Muslim riots are mentioned which outbroke a large scale as a result of an early partition of the country. The Hindus and the Muslim devised new methods to murder each other, they set house on fire, confiscated properties abducted each others women and molested them. The women were traded as well. All these gruesome events have been described in a detailed account.
In the second part, Mohajrat, the tragedies of migration after the partition are narrated. During the migration, the Muslims had to go to Pakistan and Hindus had to go to India. Meanwhile, millions were martyred and wounded. Several Muslims died of hunger or by drinking the poisonous water of wells. Many people got separated from their family members. Women were kidnapped and raped. Many of them, fearing rape or kidnapping, jumped in the wells and thus killed the members. All there painful/ heart rendering events are written in great detail.
In the third part, the difficulties faced/ encountered by the free/ independent states in the matters of partition are presented.
In the end of this chapter, the division of Hind and the behaviour and the problems of refuges of the local population are presented. These problems range from problems faced in migration camps to submission of claims, retrieval of job and property etc.
The third chapter is [Effects of riots on Urdu Fiction.] This chapter also comprises of four sections. In the first part, introduction to Tarqi Pasand movement and political effects of views and write up of the opposition of the establishment of Pakistan and the attempt to condemn the division of the country are analyzed in deatil. In the same part, the government's ban on these activities of the is also mintioned.
The Second part is an introduction of the contemporaries. It also includes a brief of the fiction writers in regard to partition of Hind and the short stories written on the theme of riots.
In the third part a commentary is conducted on the romantic movement of fiction written on the topic of partition of Hind and riots has been focused/ presented. In the fourth part, the fiction written and divided into four themes, namely murder massacre, violation of human values, kidnapping a molestation and the sentinent of sacrifice and psychological effects, their psychological and critical analysis has been made.
The fiction written by various writers on different topics, and whose work is included are Saadat Hassan Manto, Krishan Chander, Balwant Singh, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Ismat Chughtai, Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi, Mahinder Nath, Ahmed Abbas, Ram Lal, Raman and Segur, Shaukart Siddiqui and Ashfaque Ahmed.
On the theme of murder during migration, a reference has been made about the methods devised to kill the Hindus and the Muslims. In this connection, Krishan Chander's short stories 'Peshawar Express', 'Andhe' ,'Lal Begh', 'Amirtsar Azadi se Pehle', Ahmed Abbas's, 'Tantia, Manto's 'Gormal Singh ki Wariyst' and a some of the short stories of his fiction (Siyah Hashiyay are anyaylsed. Under the theme, violation of human values.
Kidnapping and molestation, riots, migration and even on returning to their native lands, different atrocities and justice toward women is presented. In this regards Saadat Hasan Manto's stories 'Shareefan', 'Khol do', 'Izat Ke Life', 'Darteing' '1919 Ke Ek Baat', 'Taamir', Pehal Pathar, Ramanand Sagar's 'Bhag in Barda Faroshon Se, the cruetties done to these women and their deep psycological effect on their personalities explained. During Hijrat and communal riost, there were several Hindus and Muslims who kept them selves aloof.
From the bitter sentiments of hatred and fanaticism and proved their worth by trying to safeguard each other's life, property and self respect. In this regard, Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi's fiction 'Permeshar Singh' Ismat Chughtais 'Jarren', Krishan Chander's 'Ek Tawaif Ka Khat', Balwant Singh's 'Lamhe' and 'Kale Kaus', Manto's 'Aakhir Salute' Sahay an Ram Khalawan Ahmed Abbas's 'Meri Maut', Ram Laal's 'Ek Shehri Pakistani' are analyzed.
In the fourth theme of fiction, the fiction written with respect to riots and migration is examined. In this regard, Rajinder Singh Bedi's 'Laj Wanti' Hayat Ullah Ansari's 'Shukr Guzar Aankhen' 'Manto's 'Tayaqan' Ram Lal's 'Nai Dharti Puraney Geet' Krishan Chander's 'Jackson' are presented with a psychological analysis.
The fourth chapter is entitled: In this chapter, the category, plot and environment of these novels is examined, which have been written as a consequence of the partition of Hind.
In this respect, Qurat ul Ain's novels 'Aag Ka Darya.and 'Mere bhi Sanam Khaney' are chosen. The theme of both the novels is an adoration of past and in these novels, the psyclolagical effects due to the dispersal of a common culture and its influence on the youth of the Hindus and Muslims has been described. In Khadija Ma stoor's novel 'Aangan', the different attitudes of Muslim League and congress in the Pakistan movement are depicted through charaterization. The changes brought about in the lives of those commoners associated with Pakistan movement, and the bitterness on their home front is narrated. Abdullah Hussain's novel 'Urdu Naslain' interprets the important political events from the First World War to the initial period of the establishment of Pakistan. In this connection, Abdullah Husain has analysed the Pakistan movement, Hind Muslim communal riots, migration establishment of Pakistan and the injustices of the society.
In Ramandand Sagar's novel, 'Aur Insan Mar Gaya' facts like the terror of communal riots, mass massacre, the fear of starvation and the selfishness of the common man avoid hunger and thirst are mentioned.
Similarly, topics such as the molestation of women and the social status of women being retrieved are focussed in particular. Ramanand Sagar has ventured to express himself neutral while defining these happenings. But at times, his concealed fanaticism is revealed in some events and dialogues.
In Krishan Chander's novelette 'Ghadaar' also during migration the and communal riots, events of brutal killings of Hindus and Muslims, setting houses on fire or trespassing houses, kidnapping and rape of women etc have been described. A part from fanatic Hindus and Muslims, he has mentioned the behaviors of these humanitarian Hindus & Muslims who provided all sorts of protection to each other.
In Ismat Chughtais novel, 'Masooma', a young girl of a family is portrayed, who as a consequence of financial problems because of the partition of Hind, takes to prostitution.
In Balwant Singh's novelette, 'Kaaley Kaus' a suppression of evil sentiments of hatred and fanaticism and assisting the Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims to reach their distention has been mentioned.
In the fifth chapter, an analysis has been made. This chapter also comprises of two parts. In the first those fictions are described in which problems after the partition of Hind are presented. Where as, in the second part, an analysis of those novels has been made which deals with the various problems of the migrations after the partition of Hind.
In these fictions and novels, the condition of migratory camps, derogatory/ insulting attitude of the local people after the cruelties of Hindus and Sikhs, deception all around, injustices and use of power and influence in the submission of claim forms and retrieval of abandoned property, problem encountered in procuring jobs, and as a result the of young boys, and the adoption of loathus some amount of attention has been focussed on the spiritual sufferings of the migrators. With reference to their spiritual distress, the greatest misery of the migratiors was the reminiscence of the separated and the homeland, getting rid of which was beyond their control. Another sorrow was that of the women tolerating the hatred and indifference of their families and relatives after their return from the kidnap. The novels and fiction written about these problems have been included in the same chapter.
In the first part of this chapter the temperament of fiction after the partition has been examined and an analysis of the fiction of Quratulain, Intizar Hussain, Shaukat Siddiqui, Saadat Hassan Manto, Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi, Sayed Mohd Ashraf and Ahmed Ashar have been presented.
The most important name, among those fiction writers who concentrated on problems after the partition, is that of Quratulain Haider and Intazar Hussain. In this chapter, Quratulain's fiction 'Jila Watan', 'Pattghar Ki Awaz' has a theme of adoration of the past. The characters are lost in the memories of their native land and companions, where as, in 'Hasb Nasb', the different changes in Chami Begum's life brought about after the partition, especially financial problem are narrated.
Intizar Hussain's fiction 'Ustad our Qauuma' has the theme of love of the past. With reference to this theme, the characters recall the time spent with their ustad, companions and shopkeepers. Manto's fiction, 'Toba Tek Singh' expressed Bishan Singh's passionate love with Toba Tak Singh. In Shaukat Siddiqui's fiction 'Andhera aur Andhera' and 'Hafte Ki Sham' the financial problems of the migrators is and their psychological effects are given attention. Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi's 'Kapas ka Phool' is an anecdote of the separation of a young girl and an old woman after the 1965 war. It also tells how the old woman returns the young girl's kindness. Khadija Mastoor's short story 'Lala'e Sehra' presents an analysis of a young girl's suppression of her wishes, becoming the patron of the household and after wards facing the psychological complications, Sayyed Ashrag's 'Dar Se Bhichre' is about the migrators deep desire to see Hindustan and the problems faced in the fulfilment of this desire. In Ahmed Ashar's 'Apna Ghar', the novels which have been included in this chapter are of the current times and afther the partition.
Those novels include shaukat Siddiqui's 'Khuda Ki Basti' Khadija Mastoor's 'Zameen' Quratulain's novelette 'Housing Society', Qudrat Ullah Shahab's novelette 'Yah Khuda', Intizar Hussian's 'Basti'.
'Khuda ki Basti' is related to the initial problems of Pakistan. Shaukat Siddiqui has mentioned the people's attempt to change or establish status, the youth being victimized due to joblessness, and people taking urdu advantage of women's helplessness.
In 'Khuda ki Basti' Suaukat Siddiqui has mentioned about the class systam with a sheer boldness.
In her novel 'Zameen' K. Mastoor refers to the miserable condition of the Mahajir Camps, raising their social status by registering fake claim forms, the migrator's victimization of poverty and of the cruelties of the upper class.
Quratulain's novelette 'Housing Society' also focusses on the change brought about in the migrator's life as a result of partition. She discusses the different events e.g. gain og social status by registesing fack claims and the migrator's victization of different problems in Pakistan after living a Luxarious life in Hindostan.
In his novelette 'Yah Khuda' Qudrat ullah Shahab lighlight the class in migrator's camps, and the destruction of women by their own people.
The theme of Intezar Hussain's novel 'Basti' is love of the past. With reference to this sentiment, the author has expressed his deep regrest over the migrator's desire to return and settle back in Hindostan, the Muslim disputes and differences in political parties.