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Title of Thesis


Muhammad Alam Chaudary
Institute/University/Department Details
Urdu Department University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
urdu language, urdu literature, azad kashmir, jammu kashmir, urdu prose, urdu poetry, literary anjumans, freedom movement of kashmir, urdu newspapers

In accordance with the topic, the research work is divided into 9 chapters. The description of chapter and title is as follows:

CHAPTER-I: BEGINNING OF URDU LANGUAGE IN JAMMU KASHMIR: In this chapter the start of Urdu language in the state of Jammu and Kashmir (spread over 84471 Sq. Miles) is discussed. It is divided into three sections. Section -I has been titled with ‚€œStanding of Muslim State in India and Illumination of Urdu language and Literature‚€Ě. The Urdu language in the sub-continent was begun due to friendship among external attackers and local population. As per this .Section, the illumination of Urdu language and literature during the government of foreign Muslims is discussed. Under the shadow of Persian the grow up story of Urdu language is described. In Section-2, Kashmir - The attacks and effects of North West conquerors, the sub-continent has always been the targeted place for external attackers. From Sikandar-e-Azam to Mughals a lot of nations have had forced march on it. As per this Section, the effects of attacks are focused for those conquerors that entered from North - West. Where these attacks have affected other areas of life. There illumination of a new language (Urdu) came to light. The Section-3 has been titled with ‚€œTile start of Urdu language ill Kashmir‚€Ě. In this Section, the events and revolutions in accordance with Sections I and 2, are discussed.

CIIAPTER-2: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF URDU LANGUAGE IN AZAD KASHMIR: The start of Urdu language in the state of Jammu and Kashmir has been discussed in chapter-I. In this chapter the start of Urdu language is described in the perspective of historical background for spread over 5134 Sq. Miles region of Azad Kashmir. This chapter has also been divided into three sections. As per Section-1, the geographical and historical background of Azad Kashmir to India before partition is described. The position of state during rule of English to India is described. As per this chapter it has been tried for research that why injustice and dispute were occurred between nations at the time of partition. In Section - 3 the modern development of Urdu and its effects on Azad Kashmir after Pakistan came into being and what activities were came in front in respect of Urdu are discussed.

CHAPTER-3: ILLUMINATION OF REGIONAL LANGUAGES IN AZAD KASHMIR: Apart from Urdu. Kashmiri. Gojri and Pahari languages are also spoken in Azad Kashmir. These languages have their historical background and these were existing in this region for many years ago before the start of Urdu. According to three languages. this chapter has been divided into three sections. In Section-1, the start of Kashmiri language and its literature have been discussed and the ethnic boundary of Kashmiri language has also been explicated in addition to the periods of Kashmiri poetry. In Scction-2, the start of Gojri language and its growth have been discussed. The geographical limit of Gojri language and its speaking computation are discussed. In Scction-3. Pahari languages and their accents and geographical limits of these languages in Azad Kashmir have been discussed. I low much Punjabi and Hindco the languages of Pakistani regions have been affected due to Pahari languages of Azad Kashmir. In this chapter, the literature created by these languages has also been brought in writing.

CHAPTER-4: URDU PROSE IN AZAD KSHMIR In this chapter the different titled areas of prose which developed in Azad Kashmir have been discussed. Beside Novel, Fiction and The travels, the periodicals and the biography according to their topic have been discussed. The standard books of prose have also been brought for discussion and various written prose is highlighted in the last as ‚€œMiscellaneous Topic‚€Ě.

CHAPTER-5: URDU POETRY IN AZAD KASHMIR: In this chapter, the Urdu poetry developed in Azad Kashmir since 1947 has been discussed. In this connection only printed poetry is selected for discussion. Particularly, printed poetry books have been chose for research work. In Azad Kashmir almost all the areas of poetry have been practiced. In this chapter all areas or printed poems are tried to discover.

CHAPTER-6: SERVICES OF LITERARY ANJUMANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF URDU IN AZAD KASHMIR: The role of Literary Anjumans for illumination of Urdu language and literature has been described. In this chapter, the literary Anjumans working in Azad Jammu and Kashmir have been divided into three sections. In Section-I, the Literary Centre of Mirpur has been brought to light. In Section-2, the services of existing Literary Anjumans at Literary Centre of Muzaffarabad have been reviewed. While in Section3, the services of Literary Anjumans of other districts for the promotion of Urdu are brought in writing.

CHAPTER-7: THE LITERATURE WRITTEN ON THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT OF KASHMIR (After 1947) This chapter has been divided into 2 sections. Written literature on freedom movement in prose after 1947 has been discussed in Section-I. And in Section-2, poetry has been described. As far as the Urdu literature is concerned, it had got a permanent place for topic when the freedom movement got strengthens. Under this topic the historical background of partition of India, internal events and results, precious losses or lives of human beings and a lot of political and economical problems came in front because of that Urdu had the necessity for creation. In this chapter a fruitful discussion is made on the creation of such literature in Azad Kashmir.

CHAPTER-8: LITERARY SERVICES OF URDU NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS IN AZAD KASHMIR: In this chapter the newspapers and journals of Urdu on ‚€œDeclaration or Azad Kashmir‚€Ě have been discussed. This chapter has been divided into three sections. In Section-I, Urdu Newspapers, In Section-2 Urdu Journals and In Section-3 College Gazette have been discussed. Under this chapter such journals and magazines arc included for research those who have contributed in the promotion of Urdu language and played role for the growth of literary tradition. The College Gazette is included on the grounds that it has played a vital role for the illumination of Urdu language.

CHAPTER ‚€“ 9: CONCLUSION: Conclusion has been described under chapter-9. The discussion pertaining from Chapter-I to Chapter-8 have briefly and comprehensively discussed in this chapter. Athough research sketches are not according to the topic of arrangement and incorporation. Yet the arrangement of conclusion is of chapter wise and various conclusions have been described separately in order of paragraphs.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
632.47 KB
2 1 Introduction
3487.68 KB
3 2 Beginning of Urdu Language in Jammu Kashmir
3272.5 KB
4 3 Historical Background of Urdu Language in Azad Kashmir
1536.35 KB
5 4 Illumination of Regional Language in Azad Kashmir
2921.38 KB
6 5 Urdu Prose in Azad Kashmir
1690.58 KB
7 6 Urdu Poetry in Azad Kashmir
716.05 KB
8 7 Services of Literary Anjumans for the Development of Urdu in Azad Kashmir
746.03 KB
9 8 The Literature Written on the Freedom Movement of Kashmir (After 1947)
2559.19 KB
10 9 Literature Services of Urdu Newspapers and Journals in Azad Kashmir
1660.88 KB
  9.1 Conclusion