|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
nasim hijazi, historical novel writing, urdu literature, mirat-al-uroos, deputy nazir ahmad, ruswa, umrao¬¨jane-ada, ratan nath sarshaar, munshi sajjad hussain, maulana abdul haleem sharar, malik-ul-aziz, virginia, firdous-e-bareen, fathe undlus, muhammad sharif, dastan-e-mujahid, gum shuda qaafle, aakhri chatan, qafla-e¬¨hijaz, qaiser-o-kisra
Novel writing is not plentiful in Urdu literature because it merely appears in the seventh decade of nineteenth Century. Mirat-al-Uroos of Deputy Nazir Ahmad can be called an elementary phase of novel writing. There after Ruswas's umraoJane-Ada is the first story which fulfils the technical requirements of novel where we see the world history with reference to novel writing we come to know that novel writing starts from Spain but we got it through English literature because we were the colony of the Britishers so English literature had a deep effect upon Urdu literature and we were impressed by that. When we take a bird's eye view on English literature with reference to novel writing we see Richardson and Scott as contemporary novel writers in English literature. In the same way, we see that in Urdu literature the historical novel writing began with the simple novels. When the historical novel writing through the ages came to Naseem Hijazi he gave it a different realistic colour. He treated it realistically. Whereas the tradition was that the historical novels were written fictionally but Naseem Hijazi gave it a realistic colour. It is only Naseem Hijazi who presents historical novels in a realistic style. But he retains all the technical aspects of novel. He keeps the novel intact. He has given new orientation to historical novels. There is no difference between the techniques and truth of novelistic presentation which may create crisis in the mind of reader. Really truthful facts are more interesting and more effective. An intellectual artist can present the history as it is without distorting the facts and figures. A good artist is witty and he is replete with literary spirit. A historian speaks of kings and well known persons but the uncountable ordinary characters are given the true place by a good and successful writer. Naseem Hijazi has done this at the best.
This thesis has been divided into six chapters. The first Chapter deals with the form of novel itself. It discusses its dictionary meaning and terminological meaning. Then I have written about evolution of novel in which I have expressed about human consciousness that got escape from super natural stories, characters and adopted living characters of living world. Novel writing in Urdu literature has taken place by virtue of English Literature. First of all, Nazir Ahmad's Mirat-al-Uroos can be called the foundation stone of novel writing which became so popular that it might have given Nazir Ahmad an incentive for reformation and purposeful writing. So having taken into account this successful kind of writing Ratan Nath Sarshaar and Munshi Sajjad Hussain have also tried their best in this field but all these efforts were elementary and could not come to the mark. In the meanwhile Maulana Abdul Haleem Sharar also introduced the historical novel writing and then the cultural values are depicted in Ruswa's Umrao Jann. By this stage it was decided that a story must have realism in it if it is narrated in novel form. It must have some ethics or viewpoints according to different societies. The novel must present social themes according to social needs of human beings. If it needs philosophical and thought provoking things then it should deal with the same simultaneously with the help of its character's actions and if the novel intends to present its own culture then it should be aimed at so vividly and nicely that the reader's interest is not distorted at all. Now the problem arises that the incidents the novelist presents are his own experiences and observations or they are the picture and portrait of the past age. For the sake of this I have presented different novels of different novelists of the literary world. After talking about the basis of novel I have presented something about novel writing in English literature. With reference to 18th century England I would like to say that Richardson's Pamela came out as a creative novel in the fourth decade of the same century but very soon Fielding's Joseph Andrews appeared as historical novel. Then so many novels of Scott gave vent to historical topics and roused the interest of the readers. Then the critics of literature formed rules and regulations, techniques and requirements for novel writing. Now it is clear before us that the historical novel writing in English literature started in the wake of ordinary novels. This chapter when it deals with novel writing in Urdu literature I have discussed in detail about the elements, plot, character, dialogue, the formation and organization of acts and scenes, its nature and importance. I have given references of novels for the classification of the same. As we know that after 1857 the Britishers were ruling over the whole India, each and every walk of life underwent the British influence. Urdu prose emerged with new orientation and poetry began with certain topics. Though the novel was less popular yet it had its roots in public and people had started taking interest in it. Simultaneously the historical novels were also liked by people. At primary level we see Abdul Haleem Sharar as the first man who came out as successful person in this field. Briefly taking into account his novels I have commented over Malik-ul-Aziz, Virginia, Firdous-e-Bareen and Fathe Undlus. In the end I have taken into account the factors due to which Sharar began with historical novels. On the one hand Muslims were dethroned. They were made slaves from their position of being a master. On the other hand their entity was damaged. They were injured culturally. They were deprived of their power and they had no reach to the government. Their identity was being distorted. Their figure was being disfigured and deshaped. Therefore, the stories of the past age were presented. Those stories which bring out triumph and victory of Muslims over non Muslims despite of the facts that Muslims were less than non Muslims and they had less quantity of arms and ammunition. They were written with a view to generate and renovate and restore the faith and Islamic spirit among the Muslims. Naseem Hijazi did this work at the best. He presented historical events', facts and figure in the form of novel. So his novels emerged as historical novels.
The second chapter deals with the biography of Naseem Hijazi in detail. His ancestors belonged to Hijaz and they lived in Gurdaspur, East Punjab. Naseem Hijazi was born in a village named SojaanPur. His date of birth is 19th May 1914. He was born in the family of Choudhry Jaan Muhammad. His father was a government servant in Canal department. He was deprived of his mother in his childhood period very soon. He got primary education in his native village but he did his BA from Islamia College Lahore in 1938. In the meanwhile he had hold pen in his hand and had started writing. First of all he pen crafted "Shader" as a fiction. By: that time he used his original name Muhammad
Sharif but later on he adopted the name of Naseem Hijazi on the advice of his teacher which he retained till death. He is known as Naseem Hijazi in the world of literature and in the world of human beings but his real name is Muhammad Sharif. This chapter i.e. Chapter NO.2 tells about the education and family background of Naseem Hijazi and his relations with his teachers and his family members. Simultaneously he began his career as an editor in Karachi and as a teacher he performed services to the nation. In the meanwhile I have discussed his relation which he maintained during his practical life with Mir Jafer Jamali in Balochistan and his attachment with weekly Paper "Tanzeem" and his service in the daily "Tameer" and I have spoken about his "Kohistan". In the meanwhile I have described all the stages which took place one after the other from the first novel, "Dastan-e-Mujahid" to his last novel "Gum Shuda Qaafle" in nutshell. Taking into account the social, political and cultural circumstances towards understanding his novel writing his role in the Pakistan movement has been discussed while he stayed in Balochistan. Being a journalist and as a political worker he won over all the tribal chiefs and made them stand firmly for the cause of Pakistan and did a lot for the inclusion of Balochistan into Pakistan.
The third chapter of this thesis deals with the journalistic services he performed in which I have described all of his attachments which he had with different news papers. He as a journalist began with daily "Hayaat" and "Zamaana", Karachi. Very soon he joined Quetta's weekly periodical "Tanzeem" where he showed his capabilities, at the best and became a great worker of Pakistan Movement. His attachment with "Tanzeem" resulted into the freedom of Pakistan and the inclusion of Balochistan into Pakistan. Having completed this mission he went to Rawalpindi where he joined daily "Tameer" but after sometime he left it as there was some differences of opinion and then he started "Kohistan" with the co-operation of Choudhry Inayatullah which came out as the largest daily paper of the country. It was because of its innovative style and it appeared from the three major cities of the country but the separation of Inayatullah made it a part f history. Besides, there are some other reasons as well which made the fall of the paper absolutely which include the government policies ahead. The political affairs were such that the convention Muslim league purchased this paper but at the end of Ayyub Khan's rule this 'paper became the sole paper of Jamaat-e-Islami, Naseem Hijazi again joined this paper but the defeat of Jamaat in the general elections of 1970 was the main cause that the paper was completely closed. His novel writing was deeply affected by his journalism. He was devoted to truth and realism. He gave an incentive to truthful and realistic writing. Rather he cemented this tradition of truthful and realistic writing. He always gave importance to the welfare of the workers of newspapers but all was in vain as he had to keep himself separate and aloof from the paper apparently. In this chapter I have also presented some of his memorable editorials and Kohistan's innovations and the popularity of different columns of the papers among the people. The journalistic traditions, which Naseem Hijazi had brought forward, are still a source of light in the field of journalism. Eventually novel writing has been deeply affected by journalism. In the fourth chapter I have discussed the co-ordination between novel and history and simultaneously I have presented a research review of the different historical facts available in the novels of Naseem Hijazi. In this connection in order to facilitate my readers first of all I have given the summary of the novel and then I have brought out the different historical facts available in the novel with reference to different historians. "Dastaan -e- Mujahid" of Naseem Hijazi deals with three important generals of Islamic History and they are Tariq Bin Ziyad, Qateeba bin Muslim Bahli and Muhammad Bin Qasim. The number of soldiers in different wars and warfare and the mode of war have been detailed with proofs available in the books of history. In the same way the historical facts available in the novel of "Muhammad Bin Qasim" and the terrible end of Muhammad Bin Qasim have been proved with authentic references from history. Thus the historical events as presented in "Aakhri Chatan" for example the detail of present wars, the plots and conspiracies of court of Caliph and the logical end of Jalaluddin Khwarzam Shah and the worst of all the end of the Caliph of Baghdad have been proved in the light of history. As such the majestic state of affairs in Spain, the enjoyment and earthly and wordly pleasures of the aristocracy and the interference of Yousuf Bin Tashfeen in the novel "Yousuf Bin Tashfeen" have been proved historically whereas the historical incidents occurred in the immediate past as told in "Moazzum Ali" which specially brings out Ali Ward Khan, Nawab Sirajuddola, Ahmad Shah Abdali, and Haider Ali and their expeditions and conspiracies have been detailed from the pages of history itself. In the same way "Aur Talwaar Toot Gain has been discussed with special reference to Tipu Sultan's gallantry and bravery and his soft corner for the French, insincerity of his own men and their role as a black sheep, conspiracies and the bravery and heroism of Tipu Sultan in the last war are such facts which are presented in the novel according to history. In the same way "Khaak Aur Khoon" presents partition of the Subcontinent and the riots that took place at that time have been proved in the light of history. Besides, the detail presented in this chapter covers the opinions of those people who were the eyewitnesses of such bloody riots at the time of partition of the subcontinent. All these references and proofs have been given with the view to avoid the objections which are raised against the novel writers. The common story is that the novel writer over estimates his heroes and under estimate the number of soldiers in the war in order to make the events more interesting to get the sympathies of the readers. Another objection is also raised from the commonplace people that novel writer is ignorant of geographical and social aspects or he presents in such a way that it is invalid and unreliable but I have tried to reject this view and this is not true with reference to Naseem Hijazi for he believes in facts and realism. First of all he himself takes an account of the things involved and then he pen crafts those things. He thinks over each and every matter objectively, he takes into account the geographical and social conditions and values, environment and way of living and then he writes and he has written novels truthfully because he believes in utmost truth. He did not write "Qafla-eHijaz" and "Qaiser-o-Kisra" until and unless he himself had made a journey to Hijaz.
The fifth chapter is consisted of the technical requirements of a novel. Apart from this, the fourth chapter has presented a research review of seven novels, which have been discussed technically and in the light of practical criticism. Their plot, character, dialogue and the presentation of scenes have been elucidated with examples that inspite of the fact of historical topic the plot is so interlinked that it became a thing of wonder and thunder and very interesting for the reader. The reader is uplifted and enjoys ecstasy so much that even in his sitting anywhere he is involved in the novel and then the arrangement of events is very beautiful. They are very well organized. They make novel interesting with curiosity which is always available in all incidents. The presentation of characterization brings out their characters through their dress, culture, social values and their movements of incoming and outgoing. These things manifest the entity of characters. For example the elementary training of Tipu Sultan in the company of lion creates in him the brave nature of lion. Tipu Sultan was just like a lion because he was brought up with lion. In the same way Yousuf Bin Tashfeen is like a saint whose contentment and piety and his rough dress and his court in an ordinary tent upon the mats affect the characters very deeply. Simultaneously the dialogue, the speeches of the characters tell us the place of characters in the society. The language used by the characters brings out their figure. They are revealed through their language. In the same way the depiction of scenes is thought provoking though it is lengthy yet it is very effective and impressive that reader thinks himself a part of the scene. As such Naseem Hijazi has utilized all the techniques and has fulfilled all the requirements so nicely that the critics of literature feel wonder. The sixth chapter while dealing with the place of Naseem Hijazi in the historical novel writing has taken into accounts the effects of the predecessors in this regard.
Naseem Hijazi had studied "AI-Farooq" of Allama Shiblee Nomani in the beginning of his age. By virtue of that his interest in history and historical facts kept increasing. It went on and on. Afterwards he read all the great novels of the literary world. He made a deep study. It is because of this fact that he left the shortcomings of his predecessors like Maulana Abdul Haleem Sharer, Muhammad Ali Tabeeb, Sadiq Sardhanvi and Allama Rashi-ul-Kheri and avoided their technical errors and short comings in his writings not only this but also he while keeping himself away such great contemporary historical novel writers especially Rais Ahmad Jafri, Rasheed Akhter Nadvi and M Aslam he maintained his idiosyncrasy and his individual quality quite intact and presented the factual past events truthfully without distorting the technical aspects of novel. His deep study, good selection of topics, and his strong grip over the art of pen crafting are the things which make him popular among the readers and as such the historical novel writing became the choice of a major group of reading world. It is by virtue of that majority group that young novel writers were impressed by Naseem Hijazi in his life time. A majority of young writers was influenced by his style and they adopted it. It is worth mentioning here that a well known weekly magazine Akhbar-Jahan and Akhbar-e-Khwateen brought about historic novel series of Khan Asif in installments. Later on these were compiled in the form of a novel for being popular among the people. Besides, the historical incidents and events of lIyas Sitapoori are being published in the monthly Suspense Digest and they are so popular in the masses that they have been collected and published together in the form of a book. Apart from this, numerous historical novels emerged in India in the immediate past and they were liked by people. Naseem Hijazi has done double duty. On one hand he has influenced the historical writers and on the other hand he influences the readers.
In the end taking a view of the technical aspect of his novels have presented and discussed the glorified dignity of Naseem Hijazi. He is such a novel writer according to our study who keeps historical facts intact and creates such a fiction that history appears like a novel and novel becomes the mirror of facts. This combination of facts and fiction in historical novel writing is a great credit, which goes to Naseem Hijazi, and he is unsurpassed in this field. He is distinct and distinguished and stands alone both in his predecessors and contemporaries. He knows the art of influencing novel into history and very artfully he can use it. Neither he surrenders from novel for the sake of history nor does he murder history for the sake of novel.