I= INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND THE CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BALOCHISTAN SINCE 1990
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Title of Thesis
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND THE CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BALOCHISTAN SINCE 1990

Author(s)
Musarrat Jabeen
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of International Relations/ University of Karachi
Session
2003
Subject
International Relations
Number of Pages
312
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
international institutions, sustainable development, balochistan, globalization, north-south politics, capacity building, low human resource development, rangeland of balochistan

Abstract
Despite the similarity of globalization factors for all the Third World nation states in 1990's, the significance of this study stems from some emanating economic opportunities in Central Asia after the collapse of USSR. Aroused regional and international economic aspirations have created a geo-strategic and economic impact on Pakistan- Balochistan. The purpose of this research is to explore and examine the key aspects of sustainable development in Balochistan and then to generalize on the pattern of interaction; among international institutions, national institutions of Pakistan. provincial institutions of Balochistan and community institutions, by focusing, socio-economic and political dimensions. The study also aims to explore the ways to build resilience in Balochistan to stand up for sustainable development, which may further the interests of its people and simultaneously enhance the status of Pakistan.

The central point of this study is based upon the hypothesis; that sustainable development may horizon by the cooperation of people (common & particularly elite) and proper functioning of relevant resourceful international institutions. A comparative method has been used in the study of domestic policies and their linkages with the international institutions in two types of situations inproxy-out proxy status of Pakistan-Balochistan, during the decade of 1980's and 1990's.

Too many people are poor, and have become poorer in the past 10 years. Income disparities have grown much worse. Deadly conflict in Afghanistan causes misery to Balochistan also. The climate, the very future of life is changing. These are the challenges that compel to improve the ways to govern. The globalization has accentuated the challenge as the connections and their effects, between people and states, are not just more numerous and profound but transforming. The dynamics of globalization are multifaceted, they may empower certain institutions and render disempowerment to others. either community institutions or international institutions. The dilemma persists as globalization is: processed by transnational institutions (UN institutions especially the IMF and WB), transnational corporations, less formal institutions e-g; World Economic Forum, Military alliances as NATO, and the growth of UN peacekeeping forces; presented through linkages with global institutions, international conventions and agreements, provincial and community institutions, NGG's and civil society; responded as increasing gap in rich and poor, increasing burden on natural resources, socio-cultural unrest. Globalization is tremendously marked by interdependence as no state can alone protect its people from conflict, climate change, and financial crises.

Patterns of behaviour, such as statements of international institutions about sustainable development and related issues; socio-economic patterns of people and relation to sustainable development; Geo-political trends in government and international institutions towards sustainable development in Balochistan, are discussed to discover the harmony and compatibility in the institutional hierarchy.

The analytical method of interaction and transaction has been employed to assess the depth and the nature of the relationship between the institutions. Data of economic interaction such as trade, aid and economic cooperation were compared between different propositions, between Pakistan and rest of South, and between Balochistan and rest of Pakistan provinces, to determine the conduciveness of the situation for forging proper functioning of international institutions.

The political and economic indices were also analyzed to ascertain whether any infrastructure exists which will facilitate the closer cooperation between the institutions. Finally an appraisal was made of the difficulties and problems in achieving maximum benefit of institutions for sustainable development in Balochistan.

Findings

The study of linkages between domestic political system and foreign policy showed, that in 1980's the foreign policy of Pakistan was dealt. by the politics of American led coalition to demise USSR in Afghanistan. The 1980's bear great impact on 1990's. In Balochistan, geographically disproportionate regions, dashed nature of the economy, geo-strategic situation, push and pull of foreign economic aid with differing political commitments, more served as impediments than as instruments for the formation sustainable development practices. Balochistan, much as she wished to foster development, sloped to advocacy at national level. The national institutions continued dependent on foreign economic flows in 1990's. International institutions ups/ream dealings with national institutions effected Balochistan.

A discussion of socio economic and political interactions revealed that three issues in Balochistan question the legitimacy and credibility of institutions.

To build capacity for sustainable development----requires efforts for awareness, skills to innovate and utilize technology.

To adapt to complement climate change mitigation represents the potential to reduce adverse impacts, but will incur costs and will not prevent all damages. Extremes, variability and rates of change are all key features in addressing vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.

To prevent deadly contlict---demands a new and wiser understanding of contlict to resolve the contlict at maximum level for long term as compared to minimum solution for the time being. It also includes immediately achievable reforms in United Nations operations.

Data of economic factors showed that Ba10chistan was less developed province of Pakistan (l35th country ranked by UNDP-HRD, 2000). International institutions not only effect sustainable development in the province, but they are also major donors in same respect. Though the involvement of international actors (state or non- state) have increased during the period under study yet Balochistan does not have reasonable properties of sustainable development. Balochistan lacks homogenous socio-political capital, because of inter and intra territorial ethnicity, and in and out siblings of international institutions.

The analysis of social-economic and political indices of institutions confirmed our view that the geneses exist for forging sustainable development. Finally. the following factors were regarded as impediments to achieving sustainable development:

1. Economic disparity between North and South, between Balochistan and rest of Pakistan 2. Pakistan-Balochistan dependence on foreign assistance 3. Un sustainable foreign funding. 4. Lack of will on the part of the leaders and elite in the province 5. Implications of dependence on foreign aid

Future Trends

The existing global environment vis-a-vis international institutions working in Balochlstan is not expected to bring a radical change. Balochistan may steadily move closer to sustainable development depending on the legitimacy and credibility of institutions. No change is likely to bring change in the decision making process of international institutions effecting the Third World-Pakistan-Balochistan, whether it is the IFI's or omissions about climate change. Factors like the geo-strategy of Afghanistan and Central Asia, and economic proximity to North will definitely influence the sustainable development in Balochistan. On other issues within the province Balochistan is likely to avoid a separate opinion from center or international institutions. Closer relative practices are likely to continue between them.

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32675.2 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
1962.25 KB
2 1 International Institutions And The Trend Of Globalization Since 1990 1
2112.1 KB
  1.1 Globalization Referred To North-South Politics 7
  1.2 Perspective Of Sustainable Development Challenge In Balochistan 10
3 2 International Institutions And The External Perspective Of Pakistan Economy Since 1990
4409.27 KB
  2.1 The Invasive Confrontation Of North South On Two Fronts Equity And Ecology 26
  2.2 Locating Pakistan In Worldview Of Global Economic Government Since 1990
  2.3 Viewing Global Economic Government As Pakistan As Per Capabilities 43
  2.4 Global Economic Government Referred To Neomercantilism An Analogy Of East India Company 56
4 3 Capacity Building For Awareness & Education And International Institutional In Balochistan 63
3486.1 KB
  3.1 Policy Design Of International Institutions And The Factor Of Capacity Building For Sustainable Development 64
  3.2 Causes Of Low Human Resource Development In Pakistan Vis Avis Balochistan 69
  3.3 Capacity Development For Awareness And Education 74
  3.4 The World Bank Project For Female Primary Education 1994-99 78
5 4 Rangeland Of Balochistan In Global Perspective Of Climate Change And International Institutions 100
4146.14 KB
  4.1 The Climate Change 101
  4.2 Indicators Of Climate Change 104
  4.3 Causes Of Climate Change 106
  4.4 Outstanding Issues In North/ South Aspect Of Climate Change 108
  4.5 Rangeland Issues And Food Security In Balochistan 116
  4.6 Consequences Of Rangeland Degradation Paradox 122
  4.7 Drought And Rangeland Of Balochistan 128
  4.8 Adaptation Is Necessary Strategy At All Scales To Complement Climate Change Mitigation 133
  4.9 Participatory Upland Conservation Development Project 1992-97 134
6 5 Balochistan In Piece Conflict Spectrum And International Institution 139
5319.34 KB
  5.1 Contextual Analysis Of Afghan Conflict Dynamics And Balochistan 148
  5.2 The New Realities Of Afghan Conflict 156
  5.3 Cost Analysis Of Afghan Conflict And Pakistan ( Balochistan ) 163
  5.4 Challenges For Development Of Conflict Prevention Work In Afghanistan 171
  5.5 Ways To Construct Means Of Peace In Afghanistan To Mitigate War Effect On Balochistan 178
7 6 Conclusion 191
4428.95 KB
  6.1 Learning Statement 192
  6.2 Global Government And Its Socio-Political Attitudes Versus Sustainable Development Its Local Impact 194
  6.3 Institutional Prospects Of Sustainable Development 206
  6.4 Future Trend 221
8 7 Bibliography 227
1051.63 KB
9 8 Annexure
6151.17 KB