I= STUDY OF BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT METALS LIKE IRON AND CHROMIUM IN ADIANTUM CAPILLUS VENERIS (A PLANT LARGELY USED FOR DIABETES)
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Title of Thesis
STUDY OF BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT METALS LIKE IRON AND CHROMIUM IN ADIANTUM CAPILLUS VENERIS (A PLANT LARGELY USED FOR DIABETES)

Author(s)
Nasreen Fatima
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Chemistry/ University of Karachi
Session
2004
Subject
Chemistry
Number of Pages
212
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
adiantum capillus veneris, diabetes, medicinal plants, momordica charantia, eugenia jambolana, gymnema sylvestre, allium sativum, trigonella foenum graecum, pongamia glabra, sphaeranthus hirtus, clerodendroninerme, ervatamia coronaria, polyalthia longifolia, hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Abstract
Adiantum capillus veneris which is locally known herb for the cure of diabetes and some other disease was selected for the study. The barks were taken and treated to check the metals content. For comparison, some well known anti-diabetic herbs and some other herbs having no concern with hypoglycemia were also selected.

The main consideration was on the relation of hypoglycemic nature and the metals. The parameters were the type and concentration of the metals. The main technique used was atomic absorption spectroscopy and concentrations in part per billion were determined by Graphite Furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

Two main metals, iron and chromium were discussed specially in detail they were also estimated and compared by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Zinc, manganese, Copper, were the other essential metals selected. Some bulk metals like sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were also checked in these samples. Toxic metals like lead, cadmium and nickel were also checked to examine the harmful nature of selected species. Aluminum was also checked but only qualitatively.

Iron and chromium was found in all anti-diabetic herbs including adiantum capillus veneris. Manganese and copper were present but their relation with anti-diabetic character was not established. Concentration of iron was found to have a negative effect because high concentration decreases the bio-absorption and produces indigestion.

The alarming results obtained related to toxic metals. As the concentration of lead in adiantum capillus veneris was found 6.00 x 10-3 mg/g, nickel 0.0 183 mg/g and cadmium 6.00 x 10-3 mg/g. The amount of lead was also found high in graecum and that was 1.55x10-2 mg/g. Water soluble lead was also found high in adiantum capillus veneris, allium sativum, and trigonella foenum graecum which was about 0.75x10-2 mg/g. Eugenia jambolana also showed very high water soluble lead which was 0.0016 mg/g. It means that, prolong use of this water extract are not desirable.

When there glucose reduction properties were studied, it is found that water extract of all the species were better hypoglycemic than the acid digested part which has higher metal content. This also proves that metals do not have any particular relation with anti diabetic effect of these herbs.

Download Full Thesis
10992.47 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
738.93 KB
2 1 Medicinal Plants 1
3515.6 KB
  1.1 Adiantum Capillus Veneris 3
  1.2 Momordica Charantia 5
  1.3 Eugenia Jambolana 9
  1.4 Gymnema Sylvestre 11
  1.5 Allium Sativum 14
  1.6 Trigonella Foenum Graecum 17
  1.7 Pongamia Glabra 20
  1.8 Sphaeranthus Hirtus 22
  1.9 Clerodendroninerme 23
  1.10 Ervatamia Coronaria 25
  1.11 Polyalthia Longifolia 27
  1.12 Hibiscus Rosa- Sinensis , Linn 28
  1.13 Diabetes 30-42
3 2 Metals 43
2702.47 KB
  2.1 Essential Trace Elements 47
  2.2 Other Essential Trace Elements 50
  2.3 Bulk Elements 64
  2.4 Toxic Metals 72
4 3 Methods For Quantitative Estimations 77
2702.48 KB
  3.1 Volumetric Methods 80
  3.2 Spectroscopic Methods 81
  3.3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 82
  3.4 Flame Photometry 88
5 4 Experimental Work 89
550.04 KB
  4.1 Sampling 89
  4.2 Moisture Analysis 89
  4.3 Analysis Of Undissolved And Dissolved Solid 89
  4.4 Ash Analysis 89
  4.5 Preparation Of Sample Solutions 90
  4.6 Estimation Of Total Metals 91
  4.7 Estimation Of Iron By Spectrophotometry 92
  4.8 Estimation Of Chromium By Spectrophotometry 93
  4.9 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 93
  4.10 Flame Photometery 94
  4.11 Estimation Of Glucose 94
6 5 Results And Discussion 95
926.48 KB
  5.1 General Treatment Of The Herbs 95
  5.2 Physical Treatments 95
  5.3 Ash Analysis 96
  5.4 Detection Of Metals By Chelation Therapy 97
  5.5 Qualitative Analysis Of Samples 98
7 6 Iron And Chromium 116
974.13 KB
  6.1 Estimation Of Iron 116
  6.2 Estimation Of Chromium 118
8 7 Study Of Other Bioavailable Trace Metals 142
419.56 KB
  7.1 Estimation Of Zinc 142
  7.2 Estimation Of Copper 142
  7.3 Estimation Of Manganese 143
9 8 Estimation Of Bioavailable Bulk Metals 154
393.84 KB
  8.1 Estimation Of Sodium 154
  8.2 Estimation Of Potassium 154
  8.3 Estimation Magnesium 155
  8.4 Estimation Of Calcium 155
10 9 Toxic Metals 166
430.77 KB
  9.1 Estimation Of Lead 166
  9.2 Estimation Of Cadmium 166
  9.3 Estimation Of Nickel 167
  9.4 Detection Of Aluminum 167
  9.5 Discussion 168
11 10 Glucose Lowering Property Of Herbs 178
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12 11 Metals And Hypoglycemic Herbs 183-185
422.09 KB
13 12 Adiantum Capillus Veneris 190
114.53 KB
  12.1 Further Studies Recommended 191
  12.2 References 192-212