Bibi, Aisha (2002) THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING ENGLISH GRAMMAR WITH THE HELP OF TEXTBOOK AND BY USING GROUP WORK ACTIVITIES. PhD thesis, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.
The problem under study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness of teaching English grammar with the help of textbook (deductive method) and by using group work activities (inductive teaching model). The study also attempted to see which of these two methods had a positive effect on the academic achievement of the elementary and secondary school students in Pakistan. The main objective of the study to find the comparative effectiveness of teaching English grammar with the help of textbook (deductive method) and by using group work activities was split into some sub objectives which dealt with the effect of the method on the academic achievement of the elementary and secondary school students, their writing and speaking ability, listening and reading comprchcl1sion, the recall of the students, the use of structures and the application of the rules of grammar by them. The sub objectives also dealt with computing the proportionate amount of time given to the students of each group at both the given levels and finding the attitude of the students of the experimental group of each level towards the group work activities. The general research hypothesis to be investigated in the study was to find the comparative effectiveness of teaching English grammar with the help of text book (deductive method) and by using group work activities (inductive teaching model) and to see which of these two methods had a positive effect on the academic achievement of the elementary and secondary school students in Pakistan. In order to investigate the various dimensions of the general research problem, various null hypotheses were tested at both the elementary and secondary stages. The study was delimited to only 6th grade and 9th grade female students of Dera Ismail Khan City. In this experimental study one school i.e. Government Girls High School No-l Dera Ismail Khan was randomly selected out of the Six Government Girls High and Higher secondary schools of Dera Ismail Khan City. Of the four 9th grade sections, two sections were randomly selected by the process of simple random sampling using draw method technique. Similar process was adopted in the case of 6th grade students. Then of the two selected groups at each level, one group was randomly assigned as the experimental and the other as the control group. Similarly two teachers almost similar in respect of educational qualifications, age, training, teaching experience at the secondary level, socio-economic status and their reputation at the school were selected at the secondary level. One teacher was randomly assigned to the experimental and the other to the control group. Similar procedure was adopted at the elementary level. The sample size was eighty (80) at the secondary and one hundred and twelve (112) at the elementary stage. The relevant pre-tests were administered to the students of both groups at each stage i.e. elementary and secondary to make sure that both the groups at each stage were equivalent at the time of starting the experiment. The Pre-test, Post-test Equivalent Group Design was used. The instrument at each stage consisted of two achievement tests (pre- test and post-test) in the subject of English, different aspects of grammar, five lessons for 9th class and six lessons for 6th class, different group work activities, observation schedule for determining the proportionate amount of time taken by the teachers and students and the attitude scale. Duration of teaching was about one month with daily period of thirty-five minutes at each stage. Both the groups at each stage were exposed to essentially the same experience, except for the method of instruction. The experimental group at each stage was taught English grammar through group work activities by using the inductive teaching model whereas the control group was taught English grammar through textbook using deductive method (traditional method). At the end of the treatment period, relevant post-tests were administered to the students of both the groups at each stage and were scored. The data thus obtained were tabulated and analyzed. Data were analyzed on computer using computer program "Statgraphics". In case of achievement tests, mean, standard deviation and variance of the pre-test and post-test scores of the elementary and secondary stage students were obtained to analyze the data. The test of the significance of the difference between the means of the two independent groups (z-test) was applied to measure the significance of the difference between the means of the two groups of interest at each stage. Significance was seen at .05 level as the criterion for the rejection of null hypotheses. The first eight hypotheses were tested through' z-test. In the case of attitude scale, the data were analyzed by calculating the percentage of the frequency counts in respect of each category of the response i.e. Yes, No and "Undecided". The proportionate amount of time in respect of the elementary as well as secondary stage was calculated by finding the percentage of the time taken by the "teacher" "teacher + students" and students in each' group and at each stage. The main findings of the study were; The experimental and control groups at both the elementary and secondary stage were equivalent at the time of starting the experiment and the teaching of English grammar through group work activities (inductive approach) played a positive role in improving the academic achievement of the students studying English at the elementary as well as the secondary stage. The group work activities could also be used for improving the writing and speaking ability, reading and listening comprehension, recall, the use of structures and the application of the rules of grammar by the students studying English at both the elementary and secondary stages. Moreover the students of the experimental groups at both the given stages had positive attitude towards the group work activities. It was also found that the time given to the students was directly proportional to their academic achievement and that the development of different language skills and different aspects of grammar were also directly proportional to the time consumed by the students.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||English grammar, Textbook, Group work activities, Deductive method, Inductive teaching model, Academic achievement, Elementary school, Students,|
|Subjects:||Social Sciences(g) > Education(g6)|
|Deposited By:||Mr Ghulam Murtaza|
|Deposited On:||16 Jun 2006|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:00|
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