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Title of Thesis

Suhaila Rahman
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of The Punjab
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
blood trace metals, hypertension, trace elements, clinical syndromes

Essential trace metals are required for the normal growth and development of human body, whereas some diseases have also been related to deficiencies and excess of certain trace metals. Deficiency of iron in anemia and iodine in giter are the classic examples. Therefore trace metals play both curative and preventive roles in combating disease for example the highly metabolic disorders is acrodermatitis enteropathica represent the spectrum of zinc as medicine. Trace metals function mostly as catalysts for enzymatic activities in human body. Metals from the atmosphere may enter into the human body through inhalation, ingestion or by contact with the skin. These metals once enter primarily pass through blood and will then accumulate in organs like liver, brain or kidney and can manifest in clinical syndromes such as psychoneurotic, renal failure or hypertension.

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in developed as well as developing countries and is becoming an area of increasing concern the world over. This is one of the important risk factor for the development of various other associated diseases such as cardiovascular, cerebrovascular accident, renal diseases (renal hypertension) and some time long and untreated hypertension into malignant hypertension.

In order to find the significance of blood trace metals in hypertension and diseases related to hypertension a study was carried out on blood samples of adult normal subject and hypertensive patients of age varying between 22-66 years from urban and rural areas of Islamabad/ Rawalpindi region of Pakistan. Different modes of Atomic absorption spectrometer(AAS) that is Flame Atomic Absorption (FAA), Flame atomic emission (FAE) and electro thermal atomic Absorption (ETA), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma Emission Spectrometry (ICP-ES) were employed for quantification of metals (Cu, Zn, Mt, Li, pb and cd) in whole blood samples after optimizing various instrumental parameters. Since no base line values for the inorganic elements in human blood for Islamabad/ Rawalpindi were authentically documented, therefore, it was the need of the time to plan, practically execute and develop a database for this state of the art issue. The blood samples were cautiously collected, analyzed and interpreted when formulating the base line elemental levels, as these levels have been utilized to extrapolate the deficiency or excess of these metals as a probable reason for the basis of different disease.

Quality assurance and quality control of the procedures adopted was checked by analyzing the whole blood samples with various procedures of AAS, replicate analysis of same samples, recovery study of the spiked metal contents in the pooled whole blood sample and comparing the results with other analytical in techniques. For quality assurance of our data, certified reference materials (CRMs) of international atomic energy agency (LAEA) and national institute of standard technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRMs), USA, were analyzed identical experimental conditions. The determined values for metal contents are in good agreement with the reported certified/ information values.

The data have been compiled and interpreted with respect to various diseases of the volunteers, biochemical parameters, various factors such as sex, blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic), socioeconomic status, habits, and place of residence i.e. urban and rural. The variations in the blood metal contents have been interpreted /discussed accordingly. The data reflect that there exists definite positive as well as negative correlation between these metals. There is also a defined correlation between blood metal contents and both systolic diastolic pressures, biochemical parameters, socioeconomic status and age in both onrmotensives as well as hypertensive patients.

The results obtained for metal contents in whole blood of normotensives as well as hypertensive patients were subjected to various statistical tools such as t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The elemental data was also subjected to principal component analysis, (PCV) a tool of chemo metrics used for evaluation and modeling of data. In view of the fact that no specific reference was available related to use of PCA for the interpretation of blood matrix, therefore, the current research would enlighten the peculiarities of applying PCA to a large collection of whole blood samples and the studied inorganic elements. Finally the determined elemental data was compared with the reported values of other countries in order to see the variation between the elemental levels in blood of deferent population and possible interpretations was also made.

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3970.51 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
227.03 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
671.99 KB
  1.1 Contribution Of Trace Elements In Human Health 3
  1.2 Hypertension In Medical History 16
  1.3 Blood 20
  1.4 Analytical Techniques For Trace Metals Determination 25
3 2 Review From Literature 47
220.13 KB
  12 . Correlation Of Metals With Hypertension And Related Diseases 47
  2.2 Aim Of The Study 63
4 3 Experimental 65
211.07 KB
  3.1 Equipment 65
  3.2 Reagents: Preparation Of Stock Solution 65
  3.3 Sampling And Sample Preparation 66
  3.4 Preparation Of Pooled Blood 67
  3.5 Distillation Of Nitric Acid (Hno 3 ) 67
  3.6 Freeze-Drying Method 68
  3.7 Target Preparation For Parr-2 69
  3.8 Container Or Rabbit Preparation 69
  3.9 Pakistan Research Reactor (Parr-2) 70
  3.10 Digestion Of Blood Samples/ Srm s ) 71
  3.11 Standard Reference Materials 71
  3.12 Procedures Of Aas 74
  3.13 Methods Of Analysis 76
5 4 Statistical Methods Of Data Analysis 79
225.82 KB
  4.1 Descriptive Statistics 79
  4.2 Sample Statistics 79
  4.3 Data Analysis Tools 80
  4.4 Correlations 80
  4.5 Chemo Metrics ( Pca ) 85
6 5 Results 92
765.91 KB
  5.1 Optimization Of Instrumental Parameters 92
  5.2 Analytical Performance 94
  5.3 Limits Of Detection And Sensitivities 97
  5.4 Quality Assurance Of The Analytical Method 98
  5.5 Analysis Of Blood Samples 98
7 6 Discussion 129
1390.89 KB
  6.1 Quality Assurance 129
  6.2 Data Of Normal Subjects 132
  6.3 Outliers From The Data Of Normal Subjects 135
  6.4 Data Of Hypertensive Patients 139
  6.5 Data Of Cardiovascular Patients 146
  6.6 Data Of Cerebrovascular Accidents Patients 150
  6.7 Data Of Malignant Hypertensive Patients 154
  6.8 Data Of Renal Hypertensive Patients 155
  6.9 Establishment Of Baseline Levels Of Normotensives 162
  6.10 Comparison With Other Countries 167
  6.11 Blood Metal Contents Of Hypertensive Patients 168
  6.12 Studied Associated Diseases Of Hypertension 170
  6.13 Correlation Of Metal Levels With Systolic And Diastolic Pressures 189
  6.14 Biochemical Parameters 193
  6.15 Comparison Of Determined Data With Other Population Groups In Hypertensive Patients 194
8 7 Conclusion 196
25.68 KB
9 8 References 198
162.03 KB
10 9 Paper Published From Present Work 211
18.72 KB
11 10 Appendix 212
25.46 KB