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Title of Thesis

Rass Masood Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of The Punjab
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
gondwana flora, salt range , anteturma sporites, cuticular fragments, anteturma pollenites, permian, jurassic miofloral assemblage, amb formations, warchha formations, dandot formations, datta formations

Samples belonging to Amb, warchha, Dandot, and Datta formations which are representative of lower and upper Gondwana beds of the salt range Pakistan were collected and investigated palynologically. Particular attention was devoted to the composition, significance, paleoecology and palynobiostratigrapjhy of the micro flora.

All the 178 Triassic samples collected from 7 different localities from the western and Eastern salt range were found to be containing partly decayed, unidentifiable palynomorphs and thus Triassic samples were excluded from the present investigation.

Two hundred and twenty five pollen and spore species belonging to 85 genera are recorded and described out of thousands of isolated microfossils. One new genus concavigleicheniidites and 86 new species have been circumscribed. While the genus godavariretusotriletes and species Acanthotriletes spinosus, cycadopites cymbatus and Godavariretusotriletes indicus are emended.

On the basis of trend of dominance and pattern of combination of the microflora, different palynobiostratigraphic units are suggested for each of the investigated formation. Probable existence of deferent plant groups during lower and upper Gondwana times in the salt range area is also speculated, based in the probable affinities of the various classes of sporae dispersae. Important changes in plant communities during Paleozoic and post Paleozoic times, as reflected by the relative appearance and disappearance of stratigraphically significant miofloral contents across each formation are also visualized and discussed.

A careful analysis of the palynoflora reveals that the plant associations at the time of deposition were composed of diverse elements of pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Pteridophytes were found to be more abundant during upper Jurassic period. On the other hand, lower and upper Permian floral assemblages, apart from their ptereridophytic content, were also rich in disaccate striatitid pollen grains (mainly haploxylonoid forms), which are considered to be cosmopolition indicators of typical Gondwanaland flora. Of the different gymonospermic elements, members of the group cordiatales were found to be restricted to Amb formation only. The polynoflora indicates a cold to warm temperate climate during lower and upper Permian, and a moderately warm humid tropical to subtropical during late Jurassic times, with presumed hot, wet to dry conditions prevailing in the low land areas and cooler drier conditions in the nearby upland areas.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
141.7 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
165.37 KB
3 2 Brief Geology Of The Sampling Localites. 15
80.16 KB
4 3 Materials And Methods 21
122.51 KB
  3.1 Sampling Techniques. 21
  3.2 Extraction Of Palynomorphs. 21
  3.3 Cuticular Studies 27
  3.4 Preparation Of Slides. 28
  3.5 Microphotography. 29
  3.6 Expression Of Frequencies. 29
5 4 Systematic Section 31
7310.45 KB
  4.1 Anteturma Sporites. 31
  4.2 Anteturma Pollenites 389
6 5 Wood And Cuticular Fragments 685
342.05 KB
7 6 Results And Discussion 719
531.63 KB
  6.1 Palynological Biostratigraphy. 719
  6.2 Palynofloristics 785
  6.3 Comparison With Other Salt Range Permian Assemblages. 799
  6.4 Comparison With Other Permian (Early Gondwana ) Assemblages. 802
  6.5 Comparison Of Jurassic Miofloral Assemblage With Other Parts Of The World. 809
  6.6 Probable Pale Ecological Interpretation 814
8 7 Summary 817
94.1 KB
9 8 Acknowledgements 824
52.07 KB
10 9 Literature Cited 828
1183.97 KB
11 10 Plat 1
4215.91 KB