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Title of Thesis

Muhammad Saeed Farooq
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of The Punjab
No date
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
landslide, murree-muzaffarabad road, murree formation, earthquake activity, lithology, sloping terraces, deforestation

Landslides are natural phenomenon involving failure of slope materials varying from small insignificant to huge catastrophic movements important routes of northern part of the country linking Pakistan with China and Azad Kashmir are very frequently disrupted because of landslides . These strategic routes remain closed for hours and some times for days due to landsliding phenomenon, which constitute one of the most expensive geologic hazards in Pakistan. The study regarding slope assessment was initiated along murree- Muzaffarabad road but extended later on to include the other important routes as well, like karakonum Highway and Mi motorway.

Detailed geological mapping was carried out different scales, emphasizing the role of litho logy in slope stability inventory map were prepared to identify stability conditions of slopes in different areas (Fig.2a-c). A broad categorization of slopes was initially made as , €œunstable € and potentially unstable based on geological and geotechnical .The critical areas termed unstable or potentially unstable were considered for qualitative and quantitative evaluation. On the basis of these evaluations eifferent relationships were established as:

i) Relation of lithologhy and structure with landslides.

ii) Earthquake activity and slope movements.

iii) Precipitation (during monsoon) and number of landslides.

iv) Type of landslide and its frequency in different climatic and litho logic conditions.

v) Geometry of slopes (inclination) versus stability.

vi) Vegetation and its effects.

Wherever suitable the relevant data have been presented in the form of tables , graphs, plots and other illustrations, for analysis of slopes parameters like slopes geometry, moisture condition, rock mass strength, density, consistency and C, Φ characteristics of materials have been used. On the basis of quantitative evaluation appropriate landslide warning and monitoring systems have been exercised and suggested. Different prevailing remedial measures to control landslides were critically studied for their effectiveness and in the light of these more suitable and economic methods are suggested.

The significance and role of different government and non government organizations has been highlighted at the end. Keeping in view the varying conditions in different parts of the country, relevant findings as influence of lithology, structure and reduction in strength on saturation etc. on landsliding phenomenon have been presented. The appropriate recommendations regarding slope protection are also suggested.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
198.69 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
96.26 KB
3 2 Geology 4
252.09 KB
  2.1 Stratigraphy 5
  2.2 Description Of Murree Formation 5
  2.3 Origin, Distribution And Thickness Of Murree Formation 6
  2.4 Stratigraphic Relationship 7
  2.5 Topographic Expression 8
  2.6 Structure And Tectonics 8
  2.7 Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis 9
  2.8 East Limb And Apex Of The Syntaxis 10
  2.9 West Limb Of The Syntaxis 11
  2.10 Axial Zone Of The Syntaxis 11
4 3 Landslide Problem 14
232.03 KB
  3.1 Description And Types 14
  3.2 Impact Of Landslides 20
5 4 Factors Causing Landslides 24
442.01 KB
  4.1 Geology And Landslides 24
  4.2 Earthquakes And Landslides 30
  4.3 Monsoon Rains And Landslides 36
  4.4 Sloping Terraces And Landslides 38
  4.5 Deforestation And Landslides 39
6 5 Strength Evaluation 43
394.43 KB
  5.1 Orientation 44
  5.2 Spacing 45
  5.3 Persistence 46
  5.4 Roughness 47
  5.5 Wall Strength 49
  5.6 Aperture 50
  5.7 Filling 50
  5.8 Seepage 51
  5.9 Number Of Sets 51
  5.10 Point Load Test 52
  5.11 Unconfined Compression 53
  5.12 Slake Durability Test 53
  5.13 Field Density 55
  5.14 Grain Size Analysis 55
  5.15 `Atterberg Limits 56
  5.16 Direct Shear Test 57
7 6 Stability Analysis 59
485.18 KB
  6.1 Factor Of Safety Of A Slope 60
  6.2 Stability Assessment 61
  6.3 Plane Failure 68
  6.4 Wedge Failures 70
  6.5 Circular Failure 71
  6.6 Plane Failure Analysis Of Kashmir Slide ( Murree Kohala Road) 74
  6.7 Wedge Failure Analysis Of Potentially Unstable Area (Z-17 Murree-Muzaffarabad Road) 78
  6.8 Circular Failure Analysis For Sliding Area Z-35 (A) On Murree-Muzaffarabad Road. 80
8 7 Remedial Measures For Slope Protection 82
340.26 KB
  7.1 Cut And Fill Solutions 82
  7.2 Drainage Control 83
  7.3 Surface Protection Of Slopes 86
  7.4 Support And Reinforcement Systems 87
  7.5 Retaining Walls And Piles 90
  7.6 Landslides Monitoring And Warning Systems 90
  7.7 Methods Of Preventing Flooding From Landslides Dams. 92
  7.8 Landslide Control In Watershed 93
  7.9 Increasing Public Awareness 95
  7.10 Technical Consulting Services 96
  7.11 Insurance Programmed 96
  7.12 Role Of Institution In Landslide Control 96
9 8 Conclusion And Recommendations 99
8203.12 KB
  8.1 Conclusions 99
  8.2 Recommendations 101