This investigation studies the 'phenomenon' of change that Pakistani English (PE) is undergoing at this moment in history as a consequence of its contact with Pakistani Languages (PLs) in general but with Urdu in particular. This involves exploration and interpretation of constantly diverging forms which may not have acquired stability and recognition among its users (Pakistani bilinguals). Since Pakistani English is not any 'one stable' system, the process of 'ongoing' change is difficult to study. In order to overcome methodological problems, qualitative research methodology has been generally adopted. Hence, 'text' is taken as a unit of analysis and data has been collected from Pakistani English Language newspapers and magazines.
The texts selected for study have been analysed by comparing the divergent forms with standard British English on the one hand and Urdu sentence structures on the other hand. It has generally been discovered that structural influence of Urdu is evident on the grammar of English but a variety of divergent lexical structures owe their existence to 'code-mixing' and 'code-switching' in Urdu. As a result, PE is not only divergent on the level of grammar and lexis but also 'wordy'. and 'verbose' on account of both literal translation, and 'code-mixing'.
Not only that literal translation and code-mixing create verbosity in PE, our oral norms of communication do appear to playa significant role in creating 'over-long' sentences with . redundant' clauses and repetitions of different kinds. Some of the texts reveal divergence in discourse patterns, although these patterns have not been studied in great detail here. However, even a superficial analysis of clauses and sentences has shown that there are micro and macro structures of 'redundancy' which cannot be ascribed to 'literal translation' or 'code-mixing'. They are a part of our 'oral norms of communication'. Bilingualism (in the form of code-mixing and literal translation) is merely a new dimension added to 'redundancy' - created by our predominatly oral norms of linguistic behaviour.
Since this is a qualitative research, the conclusions arrived at have been worked out through constant interpretation of data, from the beginning to the end. Only the first three chapters introduce the use of English in the bilingual context of Pakistan explaining the aims of research and methodology. In the first chapter, only an introduction to the use of English as 'associated' official language of the country is given to illustrate how it came into contact with Urdu in the domain of education. Then the techniques and method of research is explained in Chapter 2. The texts selected for study begin to be introduced in Chapter 3 in the 'context' of the newspapers and magazines. Four texts have been studied in detail in Chapter 4 through contrastive analysis with Urdu and comparison with SBE. The results of this analysis are further interpreted in the following chapters.
Hence, the dominant lexical divergences are examined and interpreted in Chapter 5. Then in Chapter 6 the syntactic divergences and grammatical consequences of the divergent (mainly lexical) structures have been studied in detail. Since, it was evident that all of these divergences are a result of code-mixing and literal translation, these uses of English have been discussed in detail in Chapter 7. This discussion helped to recognise that' level of abstraction' in translation is an important category in identifying sub-varieties in PE. The other category is 'code-mixing'.
Therefore in Chapter 8, this conclusion is further analysed and further dimensions along which sub-varieties within PE can be identified have been proposed. For example, it became evident that in order to identify sub-varieties in English, it is important to identify and describe 'sub-varieties' of Urdu first. There are clearly two categories of 'texts'. The first category of texts is one in which the norms of 'writing' as autonomous and 'context-free' discourse are observed. The other category of texts is one in which the 'norms' of oral communication are reflected in a variety of ways. This last category is one in which the lexicon belonging to code-mixed sub-varieties of Urdu is abundantly used. Each category consists of a huge variety of texts consisting of a 'continuum' beginning from the minimum divergence from SE to the maximum in D sub-varieties. These categories show that different texts translate different sub-varieties of Urdu - spoken or written, informal or formal, pure or mixed.
In Chapter 9, PE has been discussed as whole. In this chapter, the seven questions which Gorlach' had wanted to raised about a non-native variety (Gorlach: 1991) have been answered, showing that neither the (partly conservative) 'code' completely determines the' social context' of PE nor is it fully determined by it. The code and the context are both created and related (in different ways) by the bilingual user, in a variety of innovative ways. The user has put all resources of the two languages (or more) to communicate successfully his meanings. In this way what is of paramount significance in PE is the 'communicative intent' (Gumperz et al: 1982) of the user. The user does not necessarily want to 'conform' (or not conform) to some 'given social norms' in this culture or that.
Finally, in Chapter 10 the question of ambivalent attitude to English is taken up. This attitude has been responsible for Pakistan not being able to have a 'consistent' language policy with a clearly defined place for all official and regional languages. Consequently the education of English is elitist based in Pakistan. The social and pedagogical implications of this attitude are discussed in this chapter. For, although a change in the teaching/learning methodology has been proposed in this chapter, its fundamental message is that unless we change our attitude to the languages of education by clearly confronting the basis of our bilingualism or multilingualism, we cannot bring quality to our education and the languages we use.