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Title of Thesis

Khizar Hayat
Institute/University/Department Details
Institute of Geology/ University of the Punjab, Lahore
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
geotechnical zonation, stratigraphies, fluvial facies, geotechnical properties

The building codes have been developed by almost all developed countries of the world, these include guide line specifications for design / construction, building regulations etc; Some have even prepared their geotechnical zonation to be used by engineers and geologists. In Pakistan, however, there is not a single map available showing geotechnical variation, starting from hilly area of Gilgit passing through rolling area (of Jhelum, Rawalpindi etc.) and the lower plain areas upto the sea.

In this study Pakistan has been divided into different zones. Subsequently, ten zones between river Chenab and Sutlej were selected for detailed study. Detailed stratigraphies of the study area have been prepared for the first time in order to develop geotechnical zonation maps. This was followed by the preparation of summary sheets and geotechnical evaluation sheets and the preparation of base map and geotechnical map of Pakistan at (1 m) 3 ft depth. The geotechnical zonation maps from surface down to (12.20 m) 40 ft depth were prepared in order to present a clear picture of strata encountered, or likely to be encountered, at different levels. Sub-soil profiles / stratigraphies were prepared along cross sections from the study. area upto sea and longitudinal sections covering all zones and showing the elevation and type of soil according to the Unified Soil Classification System at different depths. Change of fluvial facies with depth is evident from the stratigraphic sheets and depth maps. Some geological and geotechnical correlations were developed between Standard Penetration Test (Number of blows per foot depth), SPT N-values and depth. The study area was contoured for SPT N-values at (0.91, 1.83, 2.74 and 3.66 m) 3, 6, 9 and 12 ft depth. The study area was also contoured for bearing capacity in ton per square foot (kilogram per square centimetre) at (0.91, 1.83, 2.74 and 3.66 m) 3, 6, 9 and 12 ft depth for breadth of footing (0.61,0.91 and 1.22 m) 2,3 and 4 ft.

The most important conclusion drawn is that the SPT N-values increase with an increase in the depth of soil. However it may be noted that in general with increase in depth the amount of clay and silt decreases while sand increases. SPT N-values increase in kankar horizons which develop in mature soils specially in bar uplands. SPT N-values also increase in soils which are over compacted or are otherwise weakly cemented by carbonates and ferruginous material. SPT N-values and other' parameters, bearing capacities for various footing breadths at different depths could be computed with varying levels of confidence. In limited areas, the relationship between engineering properties and fluvial facies could be established in a general way. But this could not be generalized for the entire study area.

The geotechnical zonation maps will facilitate the designer / geotechnical engineer / geologist for preliminary design of foundations, feasibility study, planning of detailed-investigation programmes for major projects and for the preparation of rough cost estimates for projects in Pakistan.

Download Full Thesis
7634.02 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
204.93 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
419.53 KB
  1.1 Introduction 1
  1.2 Justification And Likely Benefits 1
  1.3 Objective Of The Study 2
  1.4 Work Plan And Methodology 2
  1.5 Geotechnical National Data 4
  1.6 International Data 6
  1.7 Organization Of The Thesis 7
  1.8 Geography 8
  1.9 Physiography 12
  1.10 Geology 15
  1.11 Hydrology 20
  1.12 Soils 28
3 2 Related Geotechnical Literature Review/Soil Exploration Techniques 36
240.76 KB
  2.1 Introduction 36
  2.2 Laboratory Testing Of Soil 36
  2.3 Filed Work And In-Situ Soil Testing 40
  2.4 Standard Penetration Test Equipment And Procedure 46
  2.5 Bearing Capacity Evaluation 48
  2.6 Correlation And Regression Analysis 53
  2.7 Map Making Techniques 56
4 3 Data Analysis And Development Of Geotechnical Stratigraphies 57
762.38 KB
  3.1 Introduction 57
  3.2 Data Collection 57
  3.3 Data Analysis 57
  3.4 Stratigraphy Along Sections 59
5 4 Geotechnical Properties, Stratigraphy And Fluvial Facies Belts Of Study Area 119
1624.81 KB
  4.1 General Introduction 119
  4.2 Introduction Of Districts 122
  4.3 General Geology/ Terraces Of Districts 127
  4.4 Fluvial Facies Of Districts 134
  4.5 Stratigraphy Of Districts 136
  4.6 Relationship Between Fluvial Facies Belts And Geotechnical Properties 180
  4.7 Conclusions 180
6 5 Discussion And Development Of Geotechnical Zonation Map In General 218
1150.59 KB
  5.1 Introduction 218
  5.2 Variation Of Type Of Soils 219
  5.3 Development Of Geotechnical Map Of Pakistan 220
  5.4 Development Of Geotechnical Zonation Maps 220
  5.6 Fluvial Facies And Their Relation To Unified Soil Classification System 221
7 6 Geological And Geotechnical Relations In Selected Study Zones 264
416.41 KB
  6.1 Introduction 264
  6.2 Percentage Wise Distribution Of Sands, Silts And Clays At Various Depths 264
  6.3 Development Of Geotechnical Correlation 268
  6.4 Discussion 269
  6.5 Used Of The Study 273
  6.6 Results 273
8 7 Conclusions And Recommendations 307
187.02 KB
  7.1 Conclusions 307
  7.2 Recommendations 310
  7.3 Future Work 314
  7.4 References 314
9 8 Annexures 322
2563.33 KB