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Title of Thesis

Mohammad Saleem Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
Institute of Geology University of the Punjab, Lahore
No date
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
contaminant, groundwater, wah cantt, dhamrah kas basin, trace elements, bacteria, waste dumps, cyclic fluctuations, colifrom, faecal colifrom

The wah cantonment area (Dhamrah Kas Basin) Pakistan used to have sweet aquifer system. Due to heavy industrialization, mining activities and poor sewage system in the recent past this system has been grossly contaminated. Both chemical and biological contaminants have reached alarming values, causing health hazards environmental problems.

Interdisciplinary investigational techniques (hydrogeological reconnaissance, geophysical survey, testhole drilling, installation of tubewells and capacity test) have been used for elaboration of subsurface hydrogeology in the Wah cantonment area. An ancient valley fill deposit has been discovered and proven with the help of geoelectrical soundings testholes and dugwells. A multilayered aquifer system, identified can be significantly used to exploit groundwater.

Estimation of groundwater contaminants (major ions, trace elements and bacteria) have been estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and multiple tube method. Water samples were collected from a large number of dugwells and testholes(from deep layers). The results have been compared with World Health Organization guideline values and united States Environmental protection Agency recommended levels.

An increase of more than 100 milligram litre in total dissolved solids have been found from 1981 to 1995 due to heavy industrialization and other anthropogenic activities. There is a sharp rise in few contaminants such as Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl. The estimation of trace elements indicate that the average values of Cr, Pb and Cd have crossed the recommended level of world health Organization and United States Environmental protection Agency while the Cu, Zn, Fe and Ni are below the recommended limits.

The estimation of coliform and faecal coliform bacterial indicate a very severe level of bacterial contamination is the disposal of sewage waste through dugwell system in recently established settlements in private sector.

Keeping in view the role of geology, geohydrology, mining activities urbanization, industrialization, industrial effluents, effluents, wastes and municipal water schemes a rehabilitation programme is proposed and protectional zones are suggested

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5247.55 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
275.17 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
109.85 KB
  1.1 Sources of groundwater contamination 4
  1.2 Waste dumps 5
  1.3 Industrial effluents 5
  1.4 Disposal of sewage and sludge 6
  1.5 precipition and infiltration 6
  1.6 Other source of minor importance 7
  1.7 Selection of test field for research study 7
  1.8 Study area 8
3 2 Review of literature 10
511.19 KB
  2.1 Concept of groundwater contamination 10
  2.2 Role of groundwater investigation 14
  2.3 Sources of groundwater contamination 17
  2.4 Particular matter form airborne sources 29
  2.5 Groundwater quality problems that originate 30
  2.6 Groundwater quality problems that 35
  2.7 Controls on groundwater contamination 41
  2.8 Natural controls on groundwater contamination 42
  2.9 Leachate 46
  2.10 Changes in groundwater in 47
  2.11 Water table fluctuation and quality of water 49
  2.12 The concept of cyclic fluctuations 50
  2.13 Effects of climate 51
  2.14 Prediction of contaminants migration 55
4 2.15 Estimation of groundwater contaminants and their effects 56
511.19 KB
5 3 Materials and methods 80
543.51 KB
  3.1 Establishment of hydrogeology 81
  3.2 Development of monitoring system 87
  3.3 Sampling techniques 88
  3.4 Experimental 99
6 4 Results and discussion basic geology and hydrogeology of the study area 125
753.15 KB
  4.1 Regional geological setting 125
  4.2 Geology 125
  4.3 Hydrogeology 136
  4.4 Water table fluctuations 155
  4.5 Availability of groundwater 156
7 5 Result and discussion groundwater contaminats physical and chemical parameters 160
936.59 KB
  5.1 Physical parameters (contamination) of groundwater 160
  5.2 Estimation of chemical contamination 175
  5.3 Estimation of chemical contamination of groundwater (heavy metals)
8 6 Results and discussion groundwater contamination biological 231
1214.21 KB
  6.1 Bacterialogy of groundwater of the study area 232
  6.2 Analysis and distribution of colifrom and faecal colifrom contamination in groundwater 253
  6.3 Vertical penetration of bacteria from shallow to deep aquifer layers 265
  6.4 Scavenging effect of bacterial contamination 268
  6.5 Bacterial contamination, colifrom and faecal colifrom in wah springs 268
  6.6 Contamination of fee living organisms, algae, and fungi in groundwater 271
9 7 Establishment of protection zones 288
464.62 KB
  7.1 Concept of ground protection zones 288
  7.2 Situation of contamination in the stud area 289
  7.3 General considerations for protection zones 290
  7.4 Proposed protection system 292
  7.5 Elimination of the contamination sources 293
  7.6 Rehabilitional measures and alternate proposals 293
  7.7 Proposed protection zones 299
  7.8 Protection of Wah Srings 306
10 8 Conclusions and recommendations 307
377.07 KB
  8.1 Conclusions 307
  8.2 Recommendations 311
  8.3 References 314-354
  8.4 Research publications 355-356