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Title of Thesis

Nadeem Ahmed Pirzada
Institute/University/Department Details
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
narcotics, criminals, jails, addiction, socio-psychological factors, drug-addiction, criminal behavior, alcohol, cannabis, sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers, stimulants, hallucinogens

The present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze the socio-psychological factors, which play a fundamental role in the development of drug-addicted personality with a tendency of criminal behavior.

To achieve the objectives of the present study six hypotheses were formulated including variables of disturbed home, curiosity, imitation, vicious social surroundings, unethical attitudes and intellectual abilities.

The participants in the present research were 519 Narcotics addicted male convicted prisoners confined in District and Central jails of the Province of the Punjab - Pakistan. Under non - probability sampling technique, purposive sampling was used. The tools used for data collection were questionnaire, observation and two psychological tests. The questionnaire prepared for this research was mainly Fixed- Alternative type. There were some ‚€œpen-Ended‚€Ě questions also which were used for the sake of observation. Some of the questions were used just to get the Bio-Data about the subjects and their families.

Two psychological test were used in the present study. Firstly Gordon Personal Profile (G.P.P) test which provides a simply obtained measures of four aspects of personality which are significant in the daily functioning of the normal person. These are Ascendancy, Responsibility. Emotional Stability and Sociability. These four aspects are relatively independent and Psychologically meaningful trait in determining the adjustment and effectiveness of an individual in many situations.

Secondly Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices Test which measures a persons capacity for intellectual activity.

All the items/questions of the psychological tests and the questionnaire were quantified with the help of chi-square technique in order to get the statistical results. Some of the items. were quantified in percentages also.

As far as crime situation in Pakistan and the Asian Countries is concerned, great efforts have been made towards economic, industrial and social development. Various measures have evolved to improve living standards and develop the social environment.

However, the official statistics and measuring indices demonstrate that Pakistan and other countries of the regions' have been experiencing a worsening of their crime situation in spite of the afore mentioned development. The number of crimes has been increasing at a rate greater than that of population growth and their criminal nature has become more vicious.

Moreover Pakistan and the Asian region is now faced with more complex and political, economic and social conditions which include political conditions and antagonism of one religion or race to another.

Despite the continued efforts of Pakistan government in the region, narcotics or drug abuse and offences are sizable and still rising along with recent, rapid, social and economic development and urbanization in the country. The most common factors leading to drug abuse in Pakistan are the fragmentation of the family unit, the ready availability of drugs, unemployment, the breakdown of traditional customs, the youth sub-culture, the lack of faith in the future, peer pressure, experimentation and the ease of travel and boredom.

It is noteworthy that the illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs by criminal gangs creates conditions and opportunities conducive to increasing criminality especially in large urban settings. The current drug problem is, therefore, being recognized as a complex phenomenon of national and international dimensions.

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9610.26 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
165.49 KB
2 1 Introduction 1-244
1958.65 KB
  1.1 Drugs and human beings 1
  1.2 The origin of Narcotics 7
  1.3 Drugs and drug terminology 11
  1.4 Drug addiction/Dependence 16
  1.5 The Drug scene in Pakistan-A-Perspective 25
  1.6 Classification of Drugs 35
  1.7 Narcotics 36
  1.8 Alcohol 36
  1.9 Cannabis 39
  1.10 Sedatives and Hypnotics 46
  1.11 Tranquilizers 48
  1.12 Stimulants 49
  1.13 Hallucinogens 53
  1.14 Factors Leading to drug Abuse 60
  1.15 Effects of drugs 67
  1.16 Drug Mafia and Money Laundering 86
  1.17 Assets Investigation and its Credibility 90
  1.18 Narcotics law in Pakistan-A-Comparative study 96
  1.19 The role of advance Narcotics law enforcement school Islamabad-Pakistan 100
  1.20 Role of Hundi / Hawala Banking in Narcotics 105
  1.21 The role of NGO ,s in drug demand reduction 113
  1.22 Beliefs, reasons and their remedies associated with drugs use 137
  1.23 The healing of addictions by love and spirituality 154
  1.24 Illicit drug use and crime (Related studies ) 167
  1.25 The Relationship of addiction with crime and its rehabilitating in Islam 180
  1.26 Rehabilitating drug addicts/ Establishing a drug free society-An Islamic perspective 192
3 2 Methodology 245-263
143.59 KB
  2.1 Objectives of the study 245
  2.2 Hypotheses 246
  2.3 Study variables 247
  2.4 Definition of study variables 249
  2.5 Participants 256
  2.6 Measures 257
  2.7 procedure 261
4 3 Results 264-463
5693.56 KB
  3.1 Drug addicts from disturbed home are less ascendant and do not lead to criminal acts 264
  3.2 Curious drug addicts with a highly responsible attitude do not commit crime. 310
  3.3 Imitating drug addicts with emotionally strong and table personality do not commit crimes 321
  3.4 Emotionally stable drug addicts influenced by vicious social surroundings remains away from committing crimes 331
  3.5 Highly social drug addicts having unethical attitudes do not commit crime. 340
  3.6 Drug addicts who are intellectually average do not involve in criminal activities 351
5 4 Discussion and conclusion 464-509
469.96 KB
6 5 Limitations and suggestions 510-528
1060.85 KB
  5.1 References 529-547
  5.2 Appendixes 548-611