I= COMPARATIVE ELECTROLYTE AND WATER METABOLISM IN INDIGENOUS AND COMMERCIAL LAYERS AND BROILERS UNDER DIFFERENT DIETARY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
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Title of Thesis
COMPARATIVE ELECTROLYTE AND WATER METABOLISM IN INDIGENOUS AND COMMERCIAL LAYERS AND BROILERS UNDER DIFFERENT DIETARY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Author(s)
ChaudharyMuhammad Saleem
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Zoology/ University of the Punjab
Session
1996
Subject
Zoology
Number of Pages
275
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
layers, broilers, water metabolism, electrolyte, indigenous layers, commercial layers

Abstract
Twelve week old 300 indigenous, eight week old 300 commercial layer pullets for 6 trials and one day old 900 broiler chicks (300 in each of 3 trials) were used to study the effect of two levels of protein and three levels of salt on electrolyte and water metabolism during different seasons of the year. The birds were divided into six groups each and kept in battery cages. Two rations containing 15% and 17% protein and 0%, 0.75% and 1% of NaCI were fed to the layers. Two rations containing 20% and 23% protein with same levels of salt were fed to broilers. The maximum, minimum and ambient temperatures and humidity were recorded and rest of the feeding and managemental conditions were made uniform. Feed and water consumptions were noted daily.

The droppings were collected, in sealed polythene bags ,at 4 hours interval for 24 hours.' Crops, intestines, caeca and carcass samples were studied for moisture percentages. Abdominal fat was collected and weighed. Blood serum was analyzed for Na+, K+, C1- and HC03- from maturity to the end of trials in layers and at 4th and 8th week in broilers during different seasons of the year.

In indigenous as well as in commercial layers protein levels, salt levels, seasons and their interactions did not influence feed consumption. The weight gain due to salt levels alongwith breed and protein levels showed differences (P<0.01), however due to basic differences in body weight this may not be considered of an importance. In almost all the trials at the various salt and protein levels there are differences (P<0.05) in feed consumption and weight gain. Regarding the Feed Conversion Ratio, it is mentioned that the layers gained weight upto a certain age and therefore the weight gain does not make a significant difference in the finding. In almost all the trials the salt and protein levels and breeds showed differences (P<0.05). The water feed ratio due to different breeds and different salt levels were different (P<0.01) in all the trials.

The faecal moisture in season-l (hot and humid) showed a consistent increase as the salt and protein levels increased. The differences due to breeds were different (P<0.05). In all the subsequent trials the faecal moisture percentages showed a similar pattern.

The crop, intestinal and caecal moisture did not directly influence the litter wetting. In hot and humid season the breed differences showed differences (P<0.0l) in crop moisture contents. The influence of salt, .protein or breeds in other trials was inconsistent.

The serum sodium and potassium contents in hot and humid season increased (P<0.05) with the increased salt levels within protein levels and within breeds. Similar pattern was observed for serum sodium and potassium levels during the rest of the seasons, irrespective of protein levels or breeds. The salt levels reflected in the serum sodium and potassium contents is independent of other factors.

The serum chloride contents in all the trials showed a consistent trend within a protein level and indicated a gradual rise in serum chloride levels with the increase in salt levels, however, the differences were statistically non-significant. The serum bicarbonate values in hot and humid seasons due to protein levels were different (P<0.05).

The effect of different seasons on broiler growth rate, water metabolism and electrolyte balance at different ages with 2 levels of protein and 3 levels of salt was studied.

In season-l (hot and humid) and season-2 (cold and dry) 20% and 23% protein levels with 3 salt levels showed differences (P<0.05) in feed consumption but the pattern was inconsistent. In season-3 (spring season) the protein and salt levels showed differences (P<0.05) in feed consumption as well.

The weight gain and F.C.R. in 20% and 23% protein groups showed non-significant differences in all the 3 seasons. However, amongst seasons, the weight gain and F.C.R. response was different (P<0.Ol) due to seasons. The F.C.R. was also influenced (P<0.05) by different salt levels.

The water intake and water feed ratio within protein levels showed differences (P<0.05) in all the 3 seasons. The protein levels showed non-significant differences whereas the water feed ratio showed difference protein levels there are differences (P<0.05) in feed consumption and weight gain. Regarding the Feed Conversion Ratio, it is mentioned that the layers gained weight upto a certain age and therefore the weight gain does not make a significant difference in the finding. In almost all the trials the salt and protein levels and breeds showed differences (P<0.0.5). The water feed ratio due to different breeds and different salt levels were different (P<0.01) in all the trials.

The faecal moisture in season-l (hot and humid) showed a consistent increase as the salt and protein levels increased. The differences due to breeds were different (P<0. 05). In all the subsequent trials the faecal moisture percentages showed a similar pattern.

The crop, intestinal and caecal moisture did not directly influence the litter wetting. In hot and humid season the breed differences showed differences (P<0.0l) in crop moisture contents. The influence of salt, protein or breeds in other trials was inconsistent.

The serum sodium and potassium contents in hot and humid season increased (P<0.05) with the increased in salt levels within protein levels and within breeds. Similar pattern was observed for serum sodium and potassium levels during the rest of the seasons, irrespective of protein levels or breeds. The salt levels reflected in the serum sodium and potassium contents is independent of other factors.

The serum chloride contents in all the trials showed a (P<0.01). At 8 weeks, the faecal moisture percentages within and between seasons were inconsistent, but different (P<0.01), due to season, protein and salt levels.

The moisture percentages of visceral organs were inconsistent amongst seasons, the crop moisture was different (P<0.01), due to season, protein and salt levels. The intestinal and caecal moisture percentages also showed similar effects except for salts. The carcass moisture showed differences (P<0.01), due to salt and seasons.

At 4 weeks within seasons inconsistent and non-significant body fat percentages were recorded. However, different seasons with different protein levels revealed differences (P<0. 05). The fat contents at 8 weeks of age were lowest at 1% salt and 23% protein and were different (P<0.01) due to season, protein and salt levels.

At 4th and 8th week the differences in blood serum electrolytes, i.e. Na+, K+ and Cl- due to salt levels were different (P<0.01). Whereas the protein and seasons did not show any effect.

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
61.68 KB
2 1 Summary 1
27.46 KB
3 2 Introduction 5
50.17 KB
4 3 Review of Literature 13
371.41 KB
5 4 Materials and Methods 62
100.95 KB
6 5 Trial NO.1 Comparative study of water Metabolism in indigenous and commercial (Exotic ) Layers at maturity as influenced by different protein and salt levels during Hot and Humid season (August and September).. 79
118.72 KB
7 6 Trial NO.2 Comparative study of water Metabolism in indigenous and commercial (Exotic ) Layers at two months after maturity as influenced by different protein and salt levels during Autumn season (October and November)€€.. 95
124.77 KB
8 7 Trial NO.3 Comparative study of water Metabolism in indigenous and commercial (Exotic ) Layers at four months after maturity as influenced by different protein and salt levels during Cold and Dry season (December and January)€ 111
102.36 KB
9 8 Trial NO.4 Comparative study of water Metabolism in indigenous and commercial (Exotic ) Layers at six months after maturity as influenced by different protein and salt levels during spring season (February and March)€. 125
102.28 KB
10 9 Trial NO.5 Comparative study of water Metabolism in indigenous and commercial (Exotic ) Layers at eight months after maturity as influenced by different protein and salt levels during early Summer season (April and May).. 139
102.28 KB
11 10 Trial NO.6 Comparative study of water Metabolism in indigenous and commercial (Exotic ) Layers at ten months after maturity as influenced by different protein and salt levels during Summer season (Jun and July)€ 153
98.99 KB
12 11 Effect of different seasons (Hot and Humid, Cold and Dry and Spring) on water metabolism in Broilers as influenced by different protein and salt levels.. 167
82.68 KB
13 12 Discussion 177
245.35 KB
14 13 Conclusion 211
16.53 KB
15 14 Bibliography 212
145.14 KB
16 15 Appendix 231
221.26 KB