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Title of Thesis

Farzana Chowdhary
Institute/University/Department Details
The Faculty of Pharmacy University of the Punjab, Lahore
Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
medicinal plant, herbal medicines, unani, eastern medicine, medicinal flora, trace elements

Epidemiological studies over the past decades have documented the importance of trace elements in human health and disease. Prompted by this development the pharmaceutical companies have been marketing as general tonics a variety of formulations containing combinations of different trace element contents.

The importance of herbal medicines in the health care system of the larger section of the worlds’ population, the developing countries, is also an undeniable fact. They form and inseparable part of the traditional systems of medicine and in many cases bridge the gap between the availability of and demand for modern medicine.

Thirty eight indigenous medicinal plants, which are used in the traditional system of medicine (Unani) Practiced in Pakistan, were investigated as potential natural sources of trace elements. The medicinal plant samples we analyzed for calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium and zinc.

Calculated on the basic of lg dry plant sample, the trace element concentrations ranged between 0.967 to 104.126mg for calcium; 0.0004 to 0.024mg for copper; 0.028 to 0.881mg for iron; 0.0845 to 9.86 mg for magnesium; 0.002 to 0.072mg for manganese; 3.287 to 89.114mg for potassium; 0.124 to 12.30 mg for sodium, and , 0.0005 to 0.0317 mg for zinc.

Twelve pharmaceutical multimineral formulations, marketed in Pakistan by various manufacturers, were also selected for determining their calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium and zinc contents. As compared to the trace element contents indicated on the products, labels, the results of the present work were generally on the higher side for calcium and magnesium but in contrast were lower for iron, although nearly of the same magnitude as comparable labeled contents, were somewhat lower. The results for potassium were for the most part consistent with the labeled contents. The possible reason for the variations are discussed.

The effects of trace element contents of four medicinal plants and a multimineral pharmaceutical product were studied on rabbit serum after oral administration of calculated doses. The concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium and zinc in the serum were measured as a function of time. The pattern of change in the trace element levels in the serum suggests that though present in much weaker concentrations the naturally occurring trace elements of plant origin compare favorably with those contained in the pharmaceutical formulation. Pending further studies in human subjects the results of this study are suggestive of the usefulness of plant derived trace elements.

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3428.24 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
73.81 KB
2 1 Introduction 2
285.37 KB
  1.1 Human body and elements 2
  1.2 Human health/disease and elements 3
  1.3 Human nutrition and elements 7
  1.4 Human environment and elements 14
  1.5 Traditional eastern medicine and element 15
  1.6 Allopathic system of medicine and elements 16
  1.7 Plants and elements 22
  1.8 Developing countries and health for all by the year 2000 23
  1.9 Purpose of study 30
  1.10 References 32
3 2 Literature review 41
1870.13 KB
  2.1 Plants as medicine through the ages 41
  2.2 Medicinal flora of Pakistan 53
  2.3 Medicinal plants as suppliers of trace elements 171
  2.4 Detection and measurement of elements 184
  2.5 References 198
4 3 Materials and methods 213
186.89 KB
  3.1 Equipment and instruments 213
  3.2 Chemicals and reagents 214
  3.3 Selected specimen 219
  3.4 References 238
5 4 Results 239
513.57 KB
  4.1 Trace element contents of selected medicinal plants 239
  4.2 Trace element contents of selected pharmaceutical multimineral formulations 261
  4.3 Effect of oral administration of selected medicinal plants on trace element concentrations 271
6 5 Discussion and conclusion 288
437.03 KB
  5.1 Elements major and minor 288
  5.2 Calcium 289
  5.3 Copper 295
  5.4 Iron 299
  5.5 Magnesium 306
  5.6 Manganese 312
  5.7 Potassium 316
  5.8 Sodium 321
  5.9 Zinc 324
  5.10 Investigation on animal models 330
  5.11 Summary 331
  5.12 References 339