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Title of Thesis

Talib Hussain
Institute/University/Department Details
Institute of Chemistry/ University of the Punjab
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
environmental pollutants, lahore, cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, industrial worker, cancer patient, environmental degradation factors, tap water

Concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium and copper in the blood samples collected from different groups of the population, living in and around the city of Lahore were determined in order to assess the exposure levels of these metals in the industrial workers and general population exposed to environmental pollutants. The groups were comprised of normal males and females; exposed industrial workers, laboratory workers and cancer patients.

The male industrial worker and exposed female groups were found to contain higher lead-blood levels than I the normal groups. Cancer patient groups were found to contain the highest lead-blood concentrations than all the groups studied. The results showed higher blood-lead levels for all male groups compared to the female groups.

Cadmium-blood concentrations were found to be higher for male industrial worker s and exposed female groups compared to the normal groups. Significantly low cadmium-blood levels were observed for cancer patients of both sexes. There appears to be a possible 1ink between lead add cadmium blood levels and cancer.

Chromium and copper-blood levels were generally higher f or females of all groups compared to the male groups. No significant variations were observed for copper-blood levels for exposed and cancer patients groups of both sexes. Almost similar chromium-blood levels were observed for industrial worker and cancer patient groups.

The levels of heavy metals in blood for normal groups were generally higher than those for the similar groups in different parts of the world

In order to investigate the major possible sources metallic pollutants, such as cadmium, lead, chromium nickel and copper, the contents of these metals were determined in water and commonly used food commodities.

Tap water samples were found to contain heavy medals below the permissible limits except lead, whereas city sewage water contained elevated levels of heavy metals.

Concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and copper were determined in urban (polluted) and rural (polluted) and rural vegetables, rice, wheat, pulses, spices, refined and raw s gar, meat (beef, mutton and chicken), vegetable oil and hyrogenated vegetable oil (vegetable ghee). Elevated levels of these toxic metals were found in urban vegetables, spices and beef Nickel was found to be 4.4 times higher in vegetable ghee than the maximum permissible limits.

Dietary data showed that the prime source of heavy metals intake by city population were vegetables and cereals. These sources contribute 79-93% of the total food intakes. Forty percent of the total nickel intake in the body is contributed by vegetable ghee source only.

High intakes of cadmium, lead chromium etc. from various source by the city population have been reflected in the elevated levels of these metals in the blood of the general population and exposed industrial worker groups. Experimental/ statistical data reveal that industrial worker who are exposed to these toxic metals while working in iron/steel re-rolling mills/foundries, electroplating, printing, paint/ pigment, leather tanning, chemicals, rubber, tyre and plastic manufacturing etc. industries are at much higher risk of various types of disease including caner compared to the normal persons.

Download Full Thesis
1514.11 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
70 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
343 KB
  1.1 The City Of Lahore 5
  1.2 Environmental Degradation Factors In The City Of Lahore 8
  1.3 Environmental Pollutants 14
  1.4 Cadmium 25
  1.5 Lead 36
  1.6 Chromium 46
  1.7 Nickel 55
  1.8 Copper 58
  1.9 Aim Of The Present Work 59
3 2 Materials And Methods 63
163.82 KB
  2.1 Blood 63
  2.2 Food Commodities 69
  2.3 Sewage Water 78
  2.3 Tap (Drinking) Water 79
  2.4 Dietary Intakes 80
  2.5 Analytical Technique 82
  2.6 Statistical Analysis 95
  2.7 Cleaning Of Glassware/ Apparatus 88
  2.8 Statistical Analysis 95
4 3 Analysis Of Blood 96
265.46 KB
  3.1 Cadmium In Blood 96
  3.2 Lead In Blood 112
  3.3 Chromium In Blood 125
  3.4 Copper In Blood 137
5 4 Analysis Of Heavy Metals In Water 142
49.19 KB
  4.1 Sewage Water 142
  4.2 Tap(Drinking) Water 146
6 5 Analysis Of Food Commodities 151
252.49 KB
  5.1 Precision And Accuracy In The Determination Of Trace Metals In Food 152
  5.2 Analysis Of Vegetables 153
  5.3 Trace Metal In Cereals(Rice And Wheat) 164
  5.4 Trace Metal In Pulses And Spices 173
  5.5 Heavy Metal Contents In Sugar 182
  5.6 Heavy Metal Contents In Meat 186
  5.7 Vegetable Oil And Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil 191
7 6 Dietary Intakes Of Trace Metals From Food 197
329.6 KB
  6.1 Survey/Diet Diary 197
  6.2 Results And Discussion Of Dietary Study 197
  6.3 Summary 214
  6.4 References 221